04 November LNG Ready Capabilities

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1 04 November 2015 LNG Ready Capabilities

2 Ships Fuel in Transition? Reminiscent of coal to oil. could it be oil to LNG next? Conventional wisdom: status quo (i.e. LSFO in ECA only) until IMO decides when (2020 or 2025) worldwide 0.5% LSFO will be implemented Turning point: IMO 2018 study on LSFO availability LNG-ready? yes, for dual-fuel engines iffy for ship arrangements IGF code still evolving Evidence so far Adoption of LNG: Short sea, dedicated routes only Uncertainties in: - Bunkering infrastructure - Regulatory regime - LNG price vs. fuel oil price Adoption of Scrubber Mainly ECA operators, such as cruise ships, ferries Uncertainties in scrubber technology and CAPEX Increasing amount of installations 2

3 LNG Fuel Ready Vessels Why LNG Ready? Preparing for the Future Uncertainties will Resolve LNG Fuel may prove the most attractive option Designing for Future Conversion Ensuring Feasibility of Concept Considering the Effort Minimizing Difficulties 3

4 LNG Fuel Ready Vessels LNG Fuel Ready Assessment Cost Benefit Analysis Class Notation Adoption of LNG as Fuel Approval in Principle Design review Installation Approval 4

5 LNG Fuel Ready Vessels Applicable Rules and Regulations ABS Guide for LNG Fuel Ready Vessels (December 2014) MSC.285(86) > IGF Code ABS Guide for Propulsion and Auxiliary Systems for Gas Fueled Ships 5

6 Regulatory Framework IGF Code Approved at MSC 95 in June 2015 (Applicable 1 January 2017) IMO Interim Guidelines on Safety for Natural Gas-Fuelled Engine Installations6 in Ships (IMO Res. MSC.285(86)) (adopted 1 June 2009) IMO Interim International Code for Safety for Ships Using Gases or Other Low Flashpoint Fuels (IGF Code) Tank location criteria the biggest uncertainty Deterministic and Probabilistic criteria Tank length limitation now deleted from deterministic criteria 6

7 Cost Benefit Analysis Understanding monetary concerns for implementation Fleet profile Operational profiles, time spent in an ECA, speed, draught etc. CAPEX for LNG adoption OPEX for LNG price sensitivity vs HFO MDO option LNG availability Source, liquefaction, distribution Infrastructure export facility, bunkering vessels, tank trucks, etc. Price spread of LNG and other alternative fuels LNG fuel system maintenance costs 7

8 LNG Fuel Ready Vessels Class criteria for preparing vessels to use LNG as marine fuel The ABS Guide for LNG Ready Vessels provides guidance to shipowners and shipbuilders preparing a ship design to be ready for using LNG as a fuel The ABS Guide defines 3 LNG Fuel Ready Levels : Level 1 Concept Design Review Level 2 General Design Review Level 3 Detail Design Approval and Installation 8

9 LNG Fuel Ready Vessels Upon satisfactory completion of each review level, ABS will provide: Level 1 An Approval In Principle (AIP) for the concept design and a statement in the ABS Record Level 2 A suitably worded Statement of Compliance and a statement in the ABS Record Level 3 A Class Notation LNG Ready with a description note 9

10 LNG Fuel Ready Level 1: Approval In Principle High level evaluation of the geometry and structural arrangements of the vessel General scope of review: Safety Concept General arrangement LNG fuel containment type, location and supporting structure BOG management Fuel gas supply system and piping arrangements Engine selection Hazardous area plan Vent mast and venting systems Bunkering arrangements Electrical load analysis 10

11 AIP Phase Risk Assessment IGF Code requires a risk assessment to be undertaken for each design Engineering / Operation Target Performance Risk Assessment ABS Uncertainty Uncertainty Concept Idea / Design Basis HAZID / Change Analysis Conceptual Design Engineering Prototype Development and Testing Detailed Design Increasing Confidence Increasing Confidence Whatif HAZOP FMEA Fault Tree/ Event Tree Reliability Analysis Class Approval Phase Increasing understanding of system parameters and behavior Construction Installation / Operation Required performance limits of system Increasing understanding of system risks Survey 11

12 IGF Code Final Text A risk assessment shall be conducted to ensure that risks arising from the use of low-flashpoint fuels affecting persons on board, the environment, the structural strength or the integrity of the ship are addressed. Consideration shall be given to the hazards associated with physical layout, operation and maintenance, following any reasonably foreseeable failure. For ships using natural gas as fuel (part A-1 of the IGF Code) and complying with the detailed prescriptive requirements contained within the Code, a risk assessment need only be conducted where explicitly required by the prescriptive parts of the IGF Code. 12

13 IGF Code Final Text The risks shall be analysed using acceptable and recognized risk analysis techniques, and loss of function, component damage, fire, explosion and electric shock shall as a minimum be considered. The analysis shall ensure that risks are eliminated wherever possible. Risks which cannot be eliminated shall be mitigated as necessary. Details of risks, and the means by which they are mitigated, shall be documented to the satisfaction of the Administration. 13

14 IGF Code Explicit Cites for RA Capacity of Drip Trays Separation of Spaces by Airlocks Containment System Integration to Overall Design Design Load for Membrane Tanks Accidental Scenarios Closed or Semi-enclosed Bunkering Stations Alternative Ventilation Capacity for tank connection spaces 13.7 Ventilation System for Bunkering Station not on Open Deck Gas Detectors for Ventilation Inlets Annex, 4.4 Novel Containment Systems - Alternative Design Factor Annex, 6.8 Novel Containment Systems - Accidental Scenarios 14

15 Tank Location IGF Code deterministic criteria: B/5 or 11.5m from ship side at summer load line B/15 or 2m from bottom For cargo ships nowhere less than 0.8m-2m based on tank volume IGF Code probabilistic criteria: F cn value less than 0.04 (cargo ships) For cargo ships nowhere less than 0.8m-2m based on tank volume 15

16 Tank Location 16

17 Tank Location 17

18 Tank Location 18

19 LNG Tank Considerations Consider complete fuel containment, supply and consumption systems Tank type and location Vessel range/tank volume Structure reinforcement Sloshing effects Filling limits and BOG management Cofferdam and insulation arrangements Hold space Hazardous area Vessel impact - DWT, stability 19

20 Prime Mover Choice Diesel or Otto cycle Low pressure Otto cycle slow speed engine now offered Bigger engine? More cylinders? Diesel Cycle Same power density Same transient response No knocking No methane slip High pressure gas Otto Cycle Reduced power and/or change bore size Transient load ramps Compressed gas and air mixture Gas quality (MN) Methane slip Low pressure gas Scavenging Compression/ gas admission Ignition expansion 20

21 Fuel Gas Supply System BOG compressors/cryogenic FGSS/heaters Gas Valve Unit (room/enclosure) LNG and gas piping Bunkering arrangements Vent, purging, nitrogen supply Electrical loads GVU room Vent Vent Master gas valve Source: MAN B&W/DSME To gas consumer Block and bleed valve Gas fuel from FGS system N2 Machinery space N2 21

22 LNG Fuel Ready Level 2: General Design Review Additional to Level 1 and categorized in separate groups Design details general except gas consumers The subgroups of Level 2 are: Hull structural reinforcement for LNG storage tank LNG fuel storage tank arrangements Fuel gas bunkering system and arrangement Fuel gas supply system Gas vapor handling system Gas consumers 22

23 LNG Fuel Ready Level 3: Detail Design Approval & Installation Incorporates both the Class Approval of the detailed drawings and the installation of specified equipment on board the ship Drawings to be in compliance with the relevant sections of the ABS Gas Fueled Ships Guide To be performed in combination with Level 2 or straight after Level 1 Categorized in separate groups similar to Level 2 and more Upon completion of the installation to the surveyor s satisfaction, the vessel will be eligible for the class notation LNG Ready and statement description: S, TS, TA, BK & GS 23

24 LNG Fuel Ready Are you LNG Ready? 24

25

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