BIOLOGY 101. CHAPTER 18: Gene Expression: Turning genes on and off

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1 BIOLOGY 101 CHAPTER 18: Gene Expression: Turning genes on and off

2 BACTERIAL TRANSFORMATION: Bacteria have the ability to pick up DNA from their surroundings and transcribe it as if it was their own. When this occurs, it is referred to as Bacterial Transformation A bacterial transformation is an event in which a bacterial cell picks up foreign DNA, and subsequently, expresses a new trait as a result

3 BACTERIAL TRANSFORMATION: Bacteria have the ability to pick up DNA from their surroundings and transcribe it as if it was their own. Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that many bacteria possess naturally. They often carry accessory genes Once a plasmid has entered a cell, it is treated as native DNA, being replicated and expressed along with host DNA Transformation can involve the transfer of a plasmid from one bacteria to another

4 BACTERIAL TRANSFORMATION: Bacteria have the ability to pick up DNA from their surroundings and transcribe it as if it was their own. Plasmids are often genetically engineered to act as vectors to deliver genetic material to bacterial cells Bacterial cells are treated in such a way that they will readily take in plasmids and become transformed The term transformed came from Frederick Griffith in his experiments with mice and bacterial pathogens

5 BACTERIAL TRANSFORMATION: Bacteria have the ability to pick up DNA from their surroundings and transcribe it as if it was their own. Plasmids are often genetically engineered to act as vectors to deliver genetic material to bacterial cells Genetically engineered plasmids have built-in sites to insert foreign genes, and often confer a selective trait, such as antibiotic resistance

6 BACTERIAL TRANSFORMATION: It is important to include a gene on the plasmid that lets you know if bacteria have been transformed Such reporter genes may generate a color, fluoresce or confer resistance to an antibiotic Reporter genes somehow change the phenotype of transformed cells Antibiotic resistance is a convenient reporter gene type because it allows you a way to kill off all non-transformed cells

7 pglo Plasmid: Utilizing -lactamase to confer ampicillin resistance The pglo plasmid has been genetically engineered to take advantage of a bacterial gene for ampicillin resistance Numerous antibiotics utilize a structure known as -lactam rings. A major pathway to antibiotic resistance is the destruction of -lactam rings with -lactamase pglo continually transcribes -lactamase, making cells that have the plasmid resistant to ampicillin o This acts as a selective agent to identify transformed cells

8 OPERONS: Gene regulation is often carried out at the level of transcription This generally involves transcription factors that control the binding of RNA Polymerase to the promoter region of a gene In bacteria, small groups of functionally related genes are sometimes under the control of a single promoter. A cluster of genes like this is called an operon.

9 The Arabinose Operon: Negative and Positive Regulation Glucose is a preferred energy source for bacteria, but they can also metabolize arabinose if glucose levels are low. The Arabinose Operon controls a group of genes involved in the metabolism of arabinose. Structural genes arabad are under the control of a single promoter Another gene product, arac, is a regulatory protein that is involved in the positive and negative regulation of the operon

10 The Arabinose Operon: Negative and Positive Regulation Glucose is a preferred energy source for bacteria, but they can also metabolize arabinose if glucose levels are low. When arabinose is absent, the AraC protein represses transcription of the Ara Operon by forming a DNA loop

11 The Arabinose Operon: Negative and Positive Regulation Glucose is a preferred energy source for bacteria, but they can also metabolize arabinose if glucose levels are low. When arabinose is absent, the arac protein represses transcription of the Ara Operon by forming a DNA loop When arabinose is present, it binds to the arac protein, changing it into a positive regulator o This initiates transcription of arabad by RNA Polymerase

12 pglo Plasmid: Utilizing the regulation of the arabinose operon The pglo plasmid has been genetically engineered to take advantage of the arabinose operon regulatory pathway arabad genes have been cut out and replaced by the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) If glucose levels are low and arabinose levels are high, the GFP protein will be transcribed instead of the arabad genes

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