Nitrogen Mass Flow in China s Animal Production System and Environmental Implications

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1 Nitrogen Mass Flow in China s Animal Production System and Environmental Implications Fanghao Wang, Zhengxia Dou, Lin Ma, Wenqi Ma, J. T. Sims, and Fusuo Zhang Supplementary Table S1. Original data and source of references (in parenthesis) used for calculating INPUT (the amounts of individual feeds and the N content) and OUTPUT (amounts of N in edible products, non-edible animal parts, and excreta) in China's animal production system. INPUT Planted area Yield Used as feed N Content (1000 ha) (Mg ha -1 ) % % Pasture 308,344 (1) 0.9 (2) 80 (3) 2.1 (4) Fodder perennial hay crops 31,465 (1) 3.5 (5) 80 (3) 2.1 (4) green chop of annual fodder 3,120 (1) 10 (6) 80 (3) 0.3 (1) Amount (1000 Mg) cover crops 210,000 (1) 20 (3) 0.4 (7) tree leaves 300,000 (5) 2.5 (8) 2.0 (8) Cereal grains Corn 145,485 (1) 80 (9) 1.6 (4) rice 182,571 (1) 11.1 (10) 1.4 (4)

2 wheat 104,464 (1) 2 (10) 2.1 (4) potatoes 34,056 (1) 20 (10) 0.3 (4) Food and brewery byproducts white spirit byproducts 20,000 (11) 70 (12) 3.5 (4) beer byproducts 9,000 (11) 70 (12) 2.5 (4) fruit wine 600 (11) 70 (12) 2.5 (4) soy sauce and vinegar byproducts 430 (11) 70 (12) 1.5 (4) residue from bean products 32,450 (11) 70 (12) 4.7 (4) residue from flour 73,810 (11) 70 (12) 3.6 (4) residue from corn flour 440 (11) 70 (1) 3.0 (4) chaff of rice 18,257 (5) 77.5 (13) 2.1 (4) bran of wheat 10,446 (5) 77.5 (13) 3.1 (4) Crop residues Grain harvested (1000 Mg) Straw : grain ratio paddy rice straw 182,571 (1) 0.9:1 (14) 16.2 (14) 0.9 (7) wheat straw 104,464 (1) 1.1:1 (14) 14.3 (14) 0.7 (7) maize stalk 145,485 (1) 1.2:1 (14) 27.1 (14) 0.9 (7)

3 millet straw 1,718 (1) 1.0:1 (14) 26.0 (14) 0.8 (7) sorghum stalk 2,098 (1) 2.0:1 (14) 26.0 (14) 1.3 (7) other grains straw 6,038 (1) 1.1:1 (14) 67.8 (14) 0.7 (7) beans stem 21,048 (1) 1.0:1 (14) 34.4 (14) 2.1 (7) potatoes stem 34,056 (1) 0.5:1 (14) 100 (14) 2.5 (7) peanut stem 14,666 (1) 0.8:1 (14) 41.5 (14) 1.8 (7) rape plant straw 12,649 (1) 2.5:1 (14) 20.4 (14) 0.9 (7) cotton straw 6,746 (1) 3:.01 (14) 15.5 (14) 1.2 (7) sugarcane straw 99,784 (1) 0.33:1 (14) 10 (14) 1.1 (7) sugar beet stem and leaves 10,536 (1) 0.5 (14) 10 (14) 0.3 (7) Planted area Yield (Mg ha -1 ) (1000 ha) Silage corn 270 (15) 60 (15) 100 (15) 1.44 (4) Oilseed cakes Amount (1000 Mg) soybean meal 19,464(6) 90 (12) 6.7 (4) cottonseed meal 9,379(6) 10 (12) 4.3 (4) peanut meal 4,730(6) 100 (12) 6.9 (4)

4 rapeseed meal 7,811(6) 10 (12) 5.3 (4) Animal byproducts bone meals 1,500 (16) 11.2 (4) blood meal 315 (16) 8.9 (4) fish meal 210 (16) 14.4 (4) Amino acid supplements Lysine 325 (17) 12.8 (4) Methionine 70 (17) 9.3 (4) Threonine 20 (17) 15.4 (4) Rural population Rate (kg capita -1 yr -1 ) Kitchen wastage# 737,420,000 (18) 400 (19) 90 (19) 0.3 (7) OUTPUT Edible/consumable product (1000 Mg) N concentration pork 51,972 (18) 1.5 (21) beef 7,500 (18) 2.8 (21)

5 milk 33,025 (18) 0.5 (21) chicken meat 10,701 (20) 2.7 (21) chicken eggs 25,326 (20) 2.2 (21) duck and goose meat 5,056 (20) 2.7 (21) duck and goose eggs 4,130 (20) 2.2 (21) lamb 4,697 (18) 2.1 (21) wool 446 (18) 14.4 (22) Non-edible animal parts Edible (1000 tons) Non-edible as % of slaughtered swine 51,972(18) 37 (23) 2.1 (24) beef cattle 7,500 (18) 60 (23) 2.7 (24) sheep and goats 4,697 (18) 46 (23) 2.4 (24) poultry 15,757 (18) 25 (23) 2.7 (24) Animal excreta Inventory (1000 head) Excreta (kg animal -1 year -1 ) N excretion (kg N animal -1 growth period -1 ) swine 680,504 (25) 3419 (7) 6.2 (26) draft cattle 29,789 (25) 8702 (7) 19.5 (26) beef cattle 61,231 (25) 8702 (7) 21.2 (26) dairy cattle 13,632 (25) 8702 (7) 91.7 (26)

6 broiler 6,191,086 (25) 13 (7) 0.1 (26) layer 2,291,913 (25) 13 (7) 0.6 (26) duck and goose 4,300,000 (20) 13 (7) 0.1 (26) sheep and goat 347,917 (25) 632 (7) 6.3 (26) refers to vegetable leaves or stem, and hydrophyte for feeding. includes Chinese milk vetch, and Raphanus sativus etc. mainly includes elm, locust, poplar, and pine leaves. includes oats, buckwheat, barley etc. # refers to kitchen residues of rural households. 1. Ministry of Agriculture (MOA). 2007a. China agriculture statistical report (In Chinese). China Agriculture Press, Beijing. 2. Ministry of Agriculture (MOA). 2007b. National grasslands monitoring report (In Chinese). Available at (verified 9 March 2008). MOA, Beijing. 3. Xing, G., and X. Yan Direct nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural fields in China estimated by the revised 1996 IPPC guidelines for national greenhouse gases. Environ. Sci. Policy 2: China Feed Database (CFD) China feed database (In Chinese). Available at (verified 9 March 2008). CAAA, Beijing. 5. Liu, X., J. Xu, F. Wang, F. Zhang, and W. Ma Estimation parameters of nitrogen balance in stock farming system of China (In Chinese, with English abstract). Chinese J. Appl. Ecol. 17:

7 6. Xiao, Y Green fodder and its cultivation (In Chinese). Anim. Feed. Feedstuff 3: National Agriculture Technology Extension and Service Center (NATESC) Nutrient content in organic fertilizer of China (In Chinese). China Agriculture Press, Beijing. 8. Liu, C Analysis and nutrient contents of selected tree leaves (In Chinese). For. Byproducts Special Use Quarterly 44: Tian, W., and Z. Zhou Household animal rearing and feed grain demand in rural China. p In W.M. Tian and Z.Y. Zhou (ed.) Regional feed grain demand and supply in China (In Chinese, with English abstract). China Agricultural Press, Beijing. 10. Feed Grains Research Group (FGRG) Feed grains research report (In Chinese). China Agriculture Press, Beijing. 11. China Agriculture Products Processing Yearbook Editing Committee (CAPPYEC) (In Chinese) China Agriculture Products Processing Yearbook. China Agriculture Press, Beijing. 12. Yan, R., and Z. Wang Resources and development of non-conventional feeds in China. (In Chinese). Shandong J. Anim. Sci. Vet. Sci. 6: Hu, G., R. Cao, and X. Che Food and brewery byproducts processing and utilization (In Chinese). Agric. Products Process. 7: Gao, X., W. Ma, C. Ma, F. Zhang, and Y. Wang The current situation of crop straw utilization in China (In Chinese, with English abstract). J. Huazhong Agri. Univ. 21: Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) Maize: production and variety zones. ( ) (In Chinese). MOA, Beijing. 16. Ministry of Agriculture (MOA). 2007c. National feed industry statistic report (In Chinese). National Feed Industry Administration Office, Beijing. 17. Wang, H., and C. Fu The current situation and development trends of amino acid industry in China (In Chinese). Feed Rev. 10: National Statistical Bureau of China (NSBC) China statistical yearbook (In Chinese). China Statistics Press, Beijing. 19. Wang, F., unpublished

8 20. China Animal Agriculture Association (CAAA) Available at (verified 9 March 2008). CAAA, Beijing. 21. Yang, Y Edition of handbook of common food data (In Chinese). Peking Univ. Medical Press, Beijing. 22. Yang, X., L. Zhong, B. Chen, and X. Chen Primary exploration of extracting protein from waste wool (In Chinese, with English abstract). Wool Textile J. 4: Liu, H., and F. Wang Development and processing technology for animal byproducts (derivatives) as resources (In Chinese). Feed Rev. 8: Zhou, L., and Y. Chen Protein and nutritional values of animal byproducts (In Chinese). Yunnan J. Anim. Sci. Vet. Sci. 3: China Livestock Yearbook Editing Committee (CLYEC) China Livestock Yearbook. (In Chinese). China Agriculture Press, Beijing. 26. Wang, F., W. Ma, Z. Dou, L. Ma, X. Liu, J. Xu, and F. Zhang The estimation of the production amount of animal manure and its environmental effect in China (In Chinese, with English abstract). China Environ. Sci. 26:

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