# PRACTICAL COURSE III CLASSIFICATION & COMPACTION. Res. Assist. İREM KALIPCILAR

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1 PRACTICAL COURSE III CLASSIFICATION & COMPACTION Res. Assist. İREM KALIPCILAR

2 Group index REMINDER GI = (F )[ (LL-40)]+0.01(F )(PI-10) FOR GROUP A-2-6 and A-2-7 GI = 0.01(F )(PI-10) F200 = percentage passing through the No.200 sieve

3 REMINDER Some explanations of group index gi 1. If equation gives a negative value then GI=0; 2. Round up the value calculated by equation to an integer; (for example; GI= 9.8 then GI 9) 3. The GIs for soil groups A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-5 and A-3 are always zero (0).

4 QUESTION 1 Classify these soils according to AASHTO criteria. SIEVE SIZE PERCENT PASSING A B C D E No No No No No No No mm mm Liquid Limit Plasticity index - NP NP

5 PERCENT PASSING SIEVE SIZE A B C D E No No No No No No No mm mm Liquid Limit Plasticity index - NP NP

6 Table 1. AASHTO Soil Classification System

7 SOIL A B C D E Soil Class A-1-b A-3 A-7-5 A-7-6 A-6 Group Index Liquid Limit Plasticity Index NP NP Table 2. Range of LL and PI for Soils in Groups A-2 through A-7 C D E A-7-5 A-7-6 A

8 Relative density REMINDER The relative density (D r ) is used to characterize the density of natural granular soil. Relative Density (%) Descriptive Term 0-15 Very loose Loose Medium Dense Very dense

9 QUESTION 2 In laboratory, the weight, volume and specific gravity of an undisturbed fine sand is weighed as 3.63 kg., m 3 and 2.70, respectively. Afterwards, tests are employed to find the extreme void ratios of this soil, as a result, the maximum and minimum void ratio of this soil is determined as 0.35 and Simply determine the relative density and the dry unit weight of the soil.

10

11 Standard Proctor test REMINDER In Standard Proctor Test, soil is compacted by giving 25 blows to three levels using a metal rammer of 2.5 kg., falling from 30 cm. height. Performance of the test in 3 or 4 water contents lead to a knowledge of various water contents and dry unit weights.

12 Dry unit weight (g/cm 3 ) REMINDER Water content (%)

13 QUESTION 3 Standard Proctor test results on a medium sand is given below. Determine the optimum moisture content and maximum dry unit weight of soil. Specific gravity of soil is Test Number Weight of wet soil + compaction mold (g) Weight of compaction mold (g) Weight of wet soil (g) Water Content

14 Test Number Weight of wet soil + compaction mold (g) Weight of compaction mold (g) Weight of wet soil (g) Natural unit weight of soil (g/cm 3 ) Water Content (%) Dry unit weight of soil (g/cm 3 )

15 Dry unit weight (g/cm 3 ) Water content (%) Maksimum dry unit weight (g/cm 3 ) 1.69 Optimum water content (%) 9

16 QUESTION 4 A landfill will be constructed using a sandy silt. The natural void ratio and specific gravity of the material in the borrow area are determined as 0.95 and 2.70 respectively. The results of Standard Proctor test conducted on this soil is given below. a) Draw the compaction curve and determine the maximum dry unit weight & optimum moisture content values. b) Calculate the saturation level of the compacted soil in optimum moisture content.

17 c) The Proctor tests on the soil obtained from the borrow area revealed that water content and wet unit weight of the compacted soil are determined as 12 % and kn/m 3, respectively. Regarding to this knowledge, simply determine if the 95 % relative compaction level condition is satisfied or not. d) Determine the possible volume of landfill that can be constructed, by use of the excavated m 3 soil from the borrow area. γd (kn/m 3 ) W (%)

18 Dry unit weight (kn/m 3 ) Water content (%) Maksimum dry unit weight (kn/m 3 ) Optimum water content (%) 13.7

19 b) Saturation level of the compacted soil; c) e= 12%, γ n =19.6 kn/m 3

20 d)

21 Zero air voids curve & saturation curves REMINDER Dry unit weight at a specific saturation level may be calculated by : If the saturation level, S is assumed to be 1,

22 QUESTION 5 Standard Proctor Tests on a sandy clay revealed the following outcomes. Determine the optimum moisture content of this soil and draw the saturation curves for 90, 95 saturation levels and zero air voids curve (S=1). Unit weight of grains is 2.70 g/cm 3. Test No Natural (wet) unit weight (g/cm 3 ) Water content (%)

23

24 Test no Wet unit weight (g/cm 3 ) Water content (%) Dry unit weight (g/cm 3 ) Dry unit 90% saturation level (g/cm 3 ) Dry unit 95% saturation level (g/cm 3 ) Dry unit 100% saturation level (g/cm 3 )

25 Dry unit weigth, γ d compaction curve 90 % saturation 95 % saturation 100 % saturation Optimum water content (%)

26 QUESTION 6 An embankment for a highway 30 m wide and 1.5 m thick is to constructed from a sandy soil, trucked in from a borrow pit. The water content of the sandy soil in the borrow pit is 15 % and its void ratio is Specifications require the embankment to be compacted to a dry unit weight of 18 kn/m 3. Determine, for 1 km length of embankment, the following; a) The dry unit weight of sandy soil from the borrow pit required to construct the embankment assuming that G s = 2.70; b) The number of 10 m 3 truckloads of sandy soil required to construct the embankment; c) The weight of water per truck load of sandy soil; d) The degree of saturation of the in-situ sandy soil.

27 a) The borrow pit s dry unit weight; b) The volume of the finished embankment; Volume of borrow pit required ; weight of soil from borrow pit = weight of soil to construct the embankment

28 c) Weight of dry soil in 1 truck-load; d) Degree of saturation;

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