2 Terminology Heredity = all the traits of a living organisms // traits are encoded in the genetic material of the cell Traits (coded information) also include antibiotic resistance of microbes emerging diseases: microbes may gain pathogenic traits from other organisms // e.g. plasmids carry genetic code for drug resistance Chromosome: the structures that contain coded information // chemical polymer called DNA // bacteria have one circular chromosome carries hereditary information // individual traits are arranged as linear nucleotides called genes
3 Terminology Genetics: science of heredity Gene: a segment of DNA that encodes a functional product, usually a protein (structural vs functional or enzyme) Genome: all the genetic information in a cell (chromosome plus plasmids) Genomics: the molecular study of genomes Genotype: the genes of an organism Phenotype: expression of the genes / determined by those genes that are turned on
4 Terminology Genetics: the study of genes how genes carry information how information is expressed how genes (chromosomes) are replicated how genes maybe transferred
5 Determine Relatedness Minor changes in the sequence of the code forming the genetic alphabet results in different microbial stains // each with a different genotype Insert table from Clinical Focus, p. 220, bottom If possible on this slide, include a title: Determine Relatedness
6 Determine Relatedness Which strain is more closely related to the Uganda strain? Strain % Similar to Uganda Kenya 71% U.S. 51%
7 A prokaryotic chromosome. Chromosome Insert Fig 8.1a Disrupted E. coli cell
8 A prokaryotic chromosome. // Genetic map of the chromosome of E. coli Number inside the circle indicate the number of minutes it takes to transfer the genes during gene transfer Insert Fig 8.1b Number inside color boxes indicate number of base pairs in gene Amino acid metabolism DNA replication and repair Lipid metabolism KEY Carbohydrate metabolism Membrane synthesis
9 Parent cell The Flow of Genetic Information. DNA expression Genetic information is used within a cell to produce the proteins needed for the cell to function. recombination Insert Fig 8.2 Genetic information can be transferred between cells of the same generation. replication Genetic information can be transferred between generations of cells. Transcription New combinations of genes Translation Cell metabolizes and grows Recombinant cell Daughter cells
10 DNA Polymer of nucleotides: adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine Double helix associated with proteins Backbone is deoxyribose-phosphate Strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between AT and CG Strands are anti-parallel (5-3 vs 3-5 direction)
11 5 end DNA replication. 3 end This occurs during binary fission Insert Fig 8.3b The two strands of DNA are anti-parallel. The sugar-phosphate backbone of one strand is upside down relative to the backbone of the other strand. Turn the book upside down to demonstrate this. 3 end 5 end
12 DNA A gene is coded information (a recipe) for how to string amino acids together in order to form a new protein (structural vs functional) The Law of Complementary Base Pairing The Law of Semi-Conservative Replication
13 DNA replication. Parental strand 3 end 5 end Parental strand The double helix of the parental DNA separates as weak hydrogen bonds between the nucleotides on opposite strands break in response to the action of replication enzymes. 1 Replication fork Insert Fig 8.3a 2 3 Hydrogen bonds form between new complementary nucleotides and each strand of the parental template to form new base pairs. Enzymes catalyze the formation of sugar-phosphate bonds between sequential nucleotides on each resulting daughter strand. Daughter strand The replication fork end Parental strand 5 end Parental strand Daughter strand forming
14 New Strand Template Strand Covalent bond Hydrogen bond Sugar Phosphate 1 2 Insert Fig 8.4 When a nucleoside triphosphate bonds to the sugar, it loses two phosphates. Hydrolysis of the phosphate bonds provides the energy for the reaction.
15 DNA Synthesis DNA is copied by DNA polymerase In the 5' 3' direction (polymerase adds nucleotides only to the 3 end) Initiated by an RNA primer Leading strand is synthesized continuously Lagging strand is synthesized discontinuously // creates Okazaki fragments RNA primers are removed and Okazaki fragments joined by a DNA polymerase and DNA ligase
16 Important Enzymes in DNA Replication, Expression, and Repair * * ** * * Insert Table 8.1 *
17 A summary of events at the DNA replication fork. REPLICATION Enzymes 1 unwind the parental double helix. 5' 3' Parental strand Primase The lagging strand is synthesized discontinuously. Primase, an RNA polymerase, synthesizes a short RNA primer, which is then extended by DNA polymerase. Proteins stabilize the unwound parental DNA. Replication fork DNA polymerase Insert Fig RNA primer 8.5 DNA polymerase DNA polymerase digests RNA primer and replaces it with DNA. The leading strand is synthesized continuously by DNA polymerase. DNA polymerase Okazaki fragment 3' DNA ligase 3' 5' 5' DNA ligase joins the discontinuous fragments of the lagging strand.
18 Replication forks REPLICATION An E. coli1chromosome in the process of replicating Origin of replication Replication of bacterial DNA. Parental strand Daughter strand Replication fork Replication fork Termination of replication Bidirectional replication of a circular bacterial DNA molecule
19 Transcription DNA is transcribed to make messenger RNA (mrna) Other important RNAs involved in protein synthesis // transfer RNA, and ribosomal RNA Transcription begins when RNA polymerase binds to the promoter sequence Transcription proceeds in the 5' 3' direction Transcription stops when it reaches the terminator sequence
20 The process of transcription. RNA polymerase DNA TRANSCRIPTION DNA 1 mrna Protein RNA polymerase bound to DNA 1 RNA polymerase binds to the promoter, and DNA unwinds at the beginning of a gene. Promoter (gene begins) RNA polymerase Insert Fig 8.7 Template strand of DNA 2 RNA is synthesized by complementary base pairing of free nucleotides with the nucleotide bases on the template strand of DNA. 3 The site of synthesis moves along DNA; DNA that has been transcribed rewinds. RNA RNA nucleotides RNA synthesis 4 5 Transcription reaches the terminator. RNA and RNA polymerase are released, and the DNA helix re-forms. Terminator (gene ends)
21 Translation Three nucleotide on DNA called the base triplet mrna is translated by codons (three nucleotides on mrna) Translation of mrna begins at the start codon: AUG Translation ends at nonsense codons: UAA, UAG, UGA (stop codons of mrna)
22 The Flow of Genetic Information. Parent cell DNA expression Genetic information is used within a cell to produce the proteins needed for the cell to function. recombination Insert Fig 8.2 Genetic information can be transferred between cells of the same generation. replication Genetic information can be transferred between generations of cells. Transcription New combinations of genes Translation Cell metabolizes and grows Recombinant cell Daughter cells
23 The Genetic Code Base triplet codon anticodon Base triplet three nucleotides on chromosome // condon three nucleotides on messenger RNA // anticodon three nucleotides on trna 64 sense codons on mrna encode the 20 amino acids The genetic code is degenerate several different codons mapping the same a.a. // also the third nucleotide wobbles and often has little influence on determining the a.a.
24 The genetic code. 64 codons (only 20 a.a.) 61 = sense codons / code for a.a. 3 = non-sense / these are stop codons Insert Fig = start codon / AUG for methionine Note: degeneracy most a.a. are coded for by several different codons therefore a point mutation may not actually change the a.a. and not effect the protein
25 TRANSLATION DNA mrna Met Met RNA polymerase Simultaneous transcription and translation in bacteria. DNA Met Met Protein RNA Ribosome Peptide 1 Insert Fig 8.10 Met Met Met Met Direction of transcription RNA polymerase DNA 5 Peptide Polyribosome Ribosome Direction of translation mrna
26 The process of translation. RNA polymerase TRANSLATION Ribosome DNA mrna Protein Ribosomal subunit trna Met P Site DNA Met Leu 1 Ribosomal subunit Anticodon mrna Start codon Second codon mrna 1 Components needed to begin translation come together. Insert Fig 8.9 (1) and (2) 2 On the assembled ribosome, a trna carrying the first amino acid is paired with the start codon on the mrna. The place where this first trna sits is called the P site. A trna carrying the second amino acid approaches.
27 The process of translation. Peptide bond forms Met Met Met DNA Leu Met Leu Gly A site E site Phe 1 mrna Ribosome moves along mrna mrna 3 The second codon of the mrna pairs with a trna carrying 4 The ribosome moves along the mrna until the second trna is the second amino acid at the A site. The first amino acid in the P site. The next codon to be translated is brought into the joins to the second by a peptide bond. This Insert attaches Fig the8.9 (3) A and site. The (4) first trna now occupies the E site. polypeptide to the trna in the P site.
28 The process of translation. trna released Met Gly Met Leu Growing polypeptide chain Leu Gly Phe Phe Met mrna Insert Fig 8.9 (5) and (6) mrna 5 The second amino acid joins to the third by another peptide bond, and the first trna is released from the E site. 6 The ribosome continues to move along the mrna, and new amino acids are added to the polypeptide.
29 The process of translation. Met mrna Arg Met Leu Gly Polypeptide released Phe Leu Gly Gly Phe Met Leu Met Met Phe Met Gly Met Gly Leu Leu Gly Phe Leu Arg Met New protein Insert Fig 8.9 (7) and (8) mrna Stop codon 7 When the ribosome reaches a stop codon, the polypeptide is released. 8 Finally, the last trna is released, and the ribosome comes apart. The released polypeptide forms a new protein.
30 RNA processing in eukaryotic cells. // Different Than Prokaryotes DNA Exon Intron Exon RNA polymerase Intron Exon Met 1 In the nucleus, a gene DNA Met composed of exons and introns is transcribed to RNA by RNA polymerase. Met RNA transcript 1 2 Processing involves snrnps in the nucleus to remove the intron-derived RNA and splice together the exonderived RNA into mrna. mrna Insert Fig 8.11 Met 3 After further modification, the mature mrna Met travels to the cytoplasm, where it directs protein synthesis. Nucleus Cytoplasm
31 Regulation Constitutive genes are expressed at a fixed rate (e.g. glycolysis enzymes) Other genes are expressed only as needed Inducible genes / default position is turned off // the enzyme is produced in response to the presence of a substrate Repressible genes / default position is turned on // the enzyme production is stopped by build up off end product
32 The growth rate of E. coli on glucose and lactose. Log 10 of number of cells Time Glucose Lactose Bacteria growing on glucose as the sole carbon source grows faster than on glucose However, if no glucose is available microbe can use lactose as carbon source Microbe will need to make new enzymes to metabolize lactose Log 10 of number of cells Glucose used Time All glucose consumed Lag time Lactose used Bacteria growing in a medium containing glucose and lactose first consume the glucose and then, after a short lag time, the lactose. During the lag time, intracellular camp increases, the lac operon is transcribed, more lactose is transported into the cell, and β-galactosidase is synthesized to break down lactose.
33 An inducible operon (e.g. lactose operon) Operon Control region Structural genes I P O Z Y A DNA Regulatory gene Promoter Operator 1 Structure of the operon. The operon consists of the promoter (P) and operator (O) sites and structural genes that code for the protein. The operon is regulated by the product of the regulatory gene (I ).
34 Inducible Operon RNA polymerase Transcription Repressor mrna Active repressor protein Translation Repressor active, operon off. The repressor protein binds with the operator, preventing transcription from the operon. Note: inducible operon default setting is off (active repressor protein is being made by I the regulatory gene)
35 Inducible Operon Transcription Operon mrna Translation Allolactose (inducer) Inactive repressor protein Permease β-galactosidase Transacetylase Repressor inactive, operon on. When the inducer allolactose binds to the repressor protein, the inactivated repressor can no longer block transcription. The structural genes are transcribed, ultimately resulting in the production of the enzymes needed for lactose catabolism.
36 Repressible Operon. Operon Control region Structural genes DNA Regulatory gene Promoter Operator Structure of the operon. The operon consists of the promoter (P) and operator (O) sites and structural genes that code for the protein. The operon is regulated by the product of the regulatory gene (I ). Note: Repressible operon default setting is on // structural genes are made
37 A repressible operon. RNA polymerase Transcription Repressor mrna Translation Operon mrna Inactive repressor protein Polypeptides comprising the enzymes for tryptophan synthesis Repressor inactive, operon on. The repressor is inactive, and transcription and translation proceed, leading to the synthesis of tryptophan.
38 A repressible operon. Active repressor protein Tryptophan (corepressor) Note: end product of gene (trytophan) activates repressor // stops transcription of structural gene Repressor active, operon off. When the corepressor tryptophan binds to the repressor protein, the activated repressor binds with the operator, preventing transcription from the operon.
39 The growth rate of E. coli on glucose and lactose. Log 10 of number of cells Glucose Lactose Bacteria growing on glucose as the sole carbon source grow faster than on lactose. Time Log 10 of number of cells Glucose used All glucose consumed Lag time Lactose used Bacteria growing in a medium containing glucose and lactose first consume the glucose and then, after a short lag time, the lactose. During the lag time, intracellular camp increases, the lac operon is transcribed, more lactose is transported into the cell, and β-galactosidase is synthesized to break down lactose. Time
40 DNA laci Promoter lacz Positive regulation of the lac operon. CAP-binding site camp DNA Inactive CAP laci CAP-binding site Active CAP Promoter RNA Operator polymerase can bind and transcribe lacz Inactive lac repressor RNA Operator polymerase can't bind When lactose present, but glucose scarce (camp level is high) If glucose is scarce, the high level of camp activates CAP (catabolic active protein), and the lac operon produces large amounts of mrna for lactose digestion. Inactive CAP Inactive lac repressor Lactose present, glucose present (camp level low). When glucose is present, camp is scarce, and CAP is unable to stimulate transcription.
41 Epigenetic Control Methylating nucleotides affects transcription of DNA Methylated genes are able to be passed to offspring cells (vertical transfer) However not permanent / unlike a mutation in genetic code Believed to influence biofilm behavior
43 A fruiting body of a myxobacterium.
44 DNA Transcription of mirna occurs. MicroRNAs control a wide range of activities in cells. mirna mirna binds to target mrna that has at least six complementary bases. Stop protein synthesis after transcription Post-transcriptional control mrna Inhibit protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells mrna is degraded. Allows different cell types in multicellular organisms to produce different type of proteins from similar genetic code. (explains how heart tissue and skin tissue make different proteins)
45 Mutation / Several Different Types A change in the genetic material Mutations may be neutral, beneficial, or harmful Mutagen: agent that causes mutations Spontaneous mutations: occur in the absence of a mutagen
46 Mutation #1 Base substitution (point mutation) // Change in one base
47 Base substitutions. Parental DNA Replication During DNA replication, a thymine is incorporated opposite guanine by mistake. Daughter DNA Daughter DNA In the next round of replication, adenine pairs with the new thymine, yielding an AT pair in place of the original GC pair. Insert Fig 8.17 Daughter DNA Replication Granddaughter DNA mrna When mrna is transcribed from the DNA containing this substitution, a codon is produced that, during translation, encodes a different amino acid: tyrosine instead of cysteine. Transcription Translation Amino acids Cysteine Tyrosine Cysteine Cysteine
48 Mutation #2 Missense mutation // Base substitution results in change in amino acid
49 Types of mutations and their effects on the amino acid sequences of proteins. DNA (template strand) Transcription mrna Translation Amino acid sequence Met Lys Phe Gly Stop Normal DNA molecule DNA (template strand) mrna Amino acid sequence Met Lys Phe Ser Stop Missense mutation
50 Mutation #3 Nonsense mutation // Base substitution results in a nonsense codon E.g. // Tells the transcription process to stop in the middle of the gene // results in a nonfunctional protein
51 DNA (template strand) Types of mutations and their effects on the amino acid sequences of proteins. Transcription mrna Translation Amino acid sequence Met Lys Phe Gly Stop Normal DNA molecule Met Stop Nonsense mutation
52 Mutation #4 Frameshift mutation // Insertion or deletion of one or more nucleotide pairs This type of mutation will cause the most damage to the genetic code. Note: If shift is three or multiple of three nucleotides then resulting damage less
53 DNA (template strand) Types of mutations and their effects on the amino acid sequences of proteins. Transcription mrna Translation Amino acid sequence Met Lys Phe Gly Stop Normal DNA molecule Met Lys Leu Ala Frameshift mutation
54 The Frequency of Mutation Spontaneous mutation rate = 1 in 10 9 replicated base pairs or 1 in 10 6 replicated genes Mutagens // something that increase the incidence of errors // increase to 10 5 or 10 3 per replicated gene
55 Oxidation of nucleotides makes a mutagen. Met Stop Met Stop Insert Fig 8.19a Met Stop Adenosine nucleoside normally base-pairs Stop by hydrogen bonds with an oxygen and a hydrogen of a thymine or uracil nucleotide. Altered adenine will hydrogen bond with a hydrogen and a nitrogen of a cytosine nucleotide.
56 Oxidation of nucleotides makes a mutagen. Nitrous acid / convert base adenine to form that no longer pairs with thymine Normal daughter DNA Met Mutated granddaughter DNA Stop Normal parent DNA HNO Met 2 Replication Stop Altered parent DNA Insert Fig 8.19b Replication Stop Altered daughter DNA Altered granddaughter DNA Stop Stop The altered adenine pairs with cytosine instead of thymine.
57 Nucleoside analogs and the nitrogenous bases they replace. Normal nitrogenous base Analog Met Stop Adenine nucleoside 2-Aminopurine nucleoside Met Stop The 2-aminopurine is incorporated into DNA in place of adenine but can pair with cytosine, so an AT pair becomes a Insert CG pair. Fig 8.20 Stop Stop Stop Thymine nucleoside 5-Bromouracil nucleoside The 5-bromouracil is used as an anticancer drug because it is mistaken for thymine by cellular enzymes but pairs with cytosine. In the next DNA replication, an AT pair becomes a GC pair.
58 Radiation Ionizing radiation (X rays and gamma rays) causes the formation of ions that can react with nucleotides and the deoxyribose-phosphate backbone // cause mutations More serious outcome breakage of covalent bonds in sugar phosphate backbone breaks chromosome!
59 Radiation UV radiation causes thymine dimers
60 Ultraviolet light The creation and repair of a thymine dimer caused by ultraviolet light. Thymine dimer Exposure to ultraviolet light causes adjacent thymines to become cross-linked, forming a thymine dimer and disrupting their normal base pairing. An endonuclease cuts the DNA, and an exonuclease removes the damaged DNA. New DNA DNA polymerase fills the gap by synthesizing new DNA, using the intact strand as a template. DNA ligase seals the remaining gap by joining the old and new DNA.
61 Repair Photolyases separate thymine dimers Nucleotide excision repair // repair mutations from UV and other forms of mutagens
62 Genetic Recombination Horizontal gene transfer: the transfer of genes between cells of the same generation Vertical gene transfer: occurs during reproduction between generations of cells
63 Parent cell The Flow of Genetic Information. DNA expression Genetic information is used within a cell to produce the proteins needed for the cell to function. recombination Insert Fig 8.2 Genetic information can be transferred between cells of the same generation. replication Genetic information can be transferred between generations of cells. Transcription New combinations of genes Translation Cell metabolizes and grows Recombinant cell Daughter cells
64 Genetic Recombination Exchange of genes between two DNA molecules Crossing over occurs when two chromosomes break and rejoin In meiosis this is a normal process which adds genetic variability // associated with organisms which replicate sexually gamete formation May also occurs in prokaryotes
65 Genetic Recombination in Prokaryotes Crossing Over Transformation Conjugation Transduction Transposons (jumping genes)
66 DNA from one cell aligns with DNA in the recipient cell. Notice that there is a nick in the donor DNA. Donor DNA Recipient chromosome Genetic recombination by crossing over. DNA from the donor aligns with complementary base pairs in the recipient s chromosome. This can involve thousands of base pairs. Insert Fig 8.24 RecA protein catalyzes the joining of the two strands. RecA protein The result is that the recipient s chromosome contains new DNA. Complementary base pairs between the two strands will be resolved by DNA polymerase and ligase. The donor DNA will be destroyed. The recipient may now have one or more new genes.
67 The mechanism of genetic transformation in bacteria. Recipient cell Chromosomal DNA DNA fragments from donor cells Recipient cell takes up donor DNA. Donor DNA aligns with complementary bases. Recombination occurs between donor DNA and recipient DNA. Degraded unrecombined DNA Genetically transformed cell
68 Bacterial conjugation. Sex pilus Mating bridge F cell Insert Fig 8.27 F + cell Sex pilus Mating bridge
69 Conjugation in E. coli. RECOMBINATION Bacterial chromosome Mating bridge Replication and transfer of F factor Insert Fig 8.28a F factor F + cell F cell F + cell F + cell When an F factor (a plasmid) is transferred from a donor (F + ) to a recipient (F ), the F cell is converted to an F + cell.
70 Conjugation in E. coli. F + cell Recombination between F factor and chromosome, occurring at a specific site on each Insert Fig 8.28b Insertion of F factor into chromosome Integrated F factor Hfr cell When an F factor becomes integrated into the chromosome of an F + cell, it makes the cell a high frequency of recombination (Hfr) cell.
71 Conjugation in E. coli. Replication and transfer of part of the chromosome Insert Fig 8.28c In the recipient, recombination between the Hfr chromosome fragment and the F chromosome Hfr cell F cell Hfr cell Recombinant F cell When an Hfr donor passes a portion of its chromosome into an F recipient, a recombinant F cell results.
72 Phage protein coat Phage DNA Bacterial chromosome Donor cell RECOMBINATION A phage infects the donor bacterial cell. Transduction by a bacteriophage. Phage DNA and proteins are made, and the bacterial chromosome is broken into pieces. Phage DNA Bacterial DNA Recombinant cell reproduces normally Donor bacterial DNA Insert Fig 8.29 Recipient cell Occasionally during phage assembly, pieces of bacterial DNA are packaged in a phage capsid. Then the donor cell lyses and releases phage particles containing bacterial DNA. Recipient bacterial DNA 5 A phage carrying bacterial DNA infects a new host cell, the recipient cell. Recombination can occur, producing a recombinant cell with a genotype different from both the donor and recipient cells Pearson Education, Inc. Many cell divisions
73 Specialized transduction. Prophage Galactose-positive donor cell gal gene gal gene Bacterial DNA 1 2 Prophage exists in galactose-using host (containing the gal gene). Phage genome excises, carrying with it the adjacent gal gene from the host. Galactosenegative recipient cell Galactose-positive recombinant cell Insert Fig Phage matures and cell lyses, releasing phage carrying gal gene. Phage infects a cell that cannot utilize galactose (lacking gal gene). Along with the prophage, the bacterial gal gene becomes integrated into the new host's DNA. Lysogenic cell can now metabolize galactose.
74 Plasmids Conjugative plasmid: carries genes for sex pili and transfer of the plasmid Dissimilation plasmids: encode enzymes for catabolism of unusual compounds R factors: encode antibiotic resistance
75 R factor, a type of plasmid. Origin of replication mer Pilus and conjugation proteins Insert Fig 8.30 sul str cml Origin of transfer tet
76 Transposons Segments of DNA that can move from one region of DNA to another Contain insertion sequences for cutting and resealing DNA (transposase) Complex transposons carry other genes
77 Transposons and insertion. IS1 Transposase gene Inverted repeat Inverted repeat (a) An insertion sequence (IS), the simplest transposon, contains a gene for transposase, the enzyme that catalyzes transposition. The tranposase gene is bounded at each end by inverted repeat sequences that function as recognition sites for the transposon. IS1 is one example of an insertion sequence, shown here with simplified IR sequences. Tn5 IS1 Kanamycin resistance (b) Complex transposons carry other genetic material in addition to transposase genes. The example shown here, Tn5, carries the gene for kanamycin resistance and has complete copies of the insertion sequence IS1 at each end. IS1
78 Transposons and insertion. Transposase gene Transposase cuts DNA, leaving sticky ends. IS1 Sticky ends of transposon and target DNA anneal. (c) Insertion of the transposon Tn5 into R100 plasmid IS1
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Section 1: Identifying DNA as the Genetic Material KEY CONCEPT DNA was identified as the genetic material through a series of experiments. VOCABULARY bacteriophage MAIN IDEA: Griffith finds a transforming
DNA Structure and Replication, and Virus Structure and Replication Test Review What does DNA stand for? Deoxyribonucleic Acid DNA is what type of macromolecule? DNA is a nucleic acid The building blocks
Name: Period: Date: DNA/RNA STUDY GUIDE Part A: DNA History Match the following scientists with their accomplishments in discovering DNA using the statement in the box below. Used a technique called x-ray
How can something so small cause problems so large? Objectives Identify the structural components of DNA and relate to its function Create and ask questions about a model of DNA DNA is made of genes. Gene
1 Biology Unit 5 DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis 5:1 History of DNA Discovery Fredrick Griffith-conducted one of the first experiment s in 1928 to suggest that bacteria are capable of transferring genetic
Review? - What are the four macromolecules? Lipids Carbohydrates Protein Nucleic Acids What is the monomer of nucleic acids and what do nucleic acids make up? Nucleotides; DNA and RNA 12-1 DNA DNA Stands
1. DNA, RNA structure 2. DNA replication 3. Transcription, translation DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides DNA is a nucleic acid, made of long chains of nucleotides Nucleotide Phosphate group Nitrogenous
Gene expression Review of Protein (one or more polypeptide) A polypeptide is a long chain of.. In a protein, the sequence of amino acid determines its which determines the protein s A protein with an enzymatic
LABS 9 AND 10 DNA STRUCTURE AND REPLICATION; RNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS OBJECTIVE 1. OBJECTIVE 2. OBJECTIVE 3. OBJECTIVE 4. Describe the structure of DNA. Explain how DNA replicates. Understand the structure
Chromosomes Chromosomes Strands of DNA that contain all of the genes an organism needs to survive and reproduce Genes Segments of DNA that specify how to build a protein genes may specify more than one
OpenStax-CNX module: m46032 1 Protein Synthesis OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 By the end of this section, you will
Bio 101 Sample questions: Chapter 10 1. Which of the following is NOT needed for DNA replication? A. nucleotides B. ribosomes C. Enzymes (like polymerases) D. DNA E. all of the above are needed 2 The information
Marieb s Human Anatomy and Physiology Marieb Hoehn Chapter 3 DNA & RNA Protein Synthesis Lecture 6 Lecture Overview The Genetic Information Structure of DNA/RNA DNA Replication Overview of protein synthesis
DNA Replication DNA vs. RNA DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid (double stranded) RNA: ribonucleic acid (single stranded) Both found in most bacterial and eukaryotic cells RNA molecule can assume different structures
DNA Replication and Repair http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/organic/imgorg/cendog.gif Overview of DNA Replication SWYK CNs 1, 2, 30 Explain how specific base pairing enables existing DNA strands
Replication Review 1. What is DNA Replication? 2. Where does DNA Replication take place in eukaryotic cells? 3. Where does DNA Replication take place in the cell cycle? 4. 4. What guides DNA Replication?
Chromosome Nucleus DNA PUC Vikasana Program- 2012 Introduction Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. Macromolecules and the macromolecular mechanisms. Interactions between the
DNA Introduction Do you think DNA is important? T.V shows Movies Biotech Films News Cloning Genetic Engineering At the most basic level DNA is a set of instructions for protein construction. Structural
Name Class Date 12 DNA Practice Test Multiple Choice Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided. 1. What do bacteriophages infect? a. mice. c. viruses.
Protein Synthesis DNA to RNA to Protein From Genes to Proteins Processing the information contained in DNA into proteins involves a sequence of events known as gene expression and results in protein synthesis.
What happens after DNA Replication??? Transcription, translation, gene expression/protein synthesis!!!! Protein Synthesis/Gene Expression Why do we need to make proteins? To build parts for our body as
Chapter 13 - Concept Mapping Using the terms and phrases provided below, complete the concept map showing the discovery of DNA structure. amount of base pairs five-carbon sugar purine DNA polymerases Franklin
Frederick Griffith: Transformation 1928 Conclusion: bacteria could give other bacteria heritable traits, even after they were dead. 1 Avery, McCarty & MacLeod: Griffiths Refined (1944) Refined Griffith's
DNA replication Begins at specific sites on a double helix. Proceeds in both directions. Is initiated at many points in eukaryotic chromosomes. Figure 10.8 http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/media/ DNAi_replication_schematic-lg.mov
MCAT Biology - Problem Drill 05: RNA and Protein Biosynthesis Question No. 1 of 10 1. Which of the following bases are only found in RNA? Question #01 (A) Ribose. (B) Uracil. (C) Threonine. (D) Adenine.
Chapter 18: Regulation of Gene Expression 1. Gene Regulation in Bacteria 2. Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes 3. Gene Regulation & Cancer Gene Regulation Gene regulation refers to all aspects of controlling