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1 SPE DISTINGUISHED LECTURER SERIES is funded principally through a grant of the SPE FOUNDATION The Society gratefully acknowledges those companies that support the program by allowing their professionals to participate as Lecturers. And special thanks to The American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (AIME) for their contribution to the program.

2 LNG Roaring Ahead. Where Will it End? John Morgan John M. Campbell & Company Exclusive Provider of PetroSkills Facilities Training Headquarters Office 1215 Crossroads Blvd., Norman, OK USA (405) Office / (405) Fax / (303) Cell / John M. Campbell & Co. and Other Copyright Holders All Rights Reserved

3 2005 Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. All Rights Reserved

4 $7 Billion Entry Fee

5 2008 ConocoPhillips Used With Permission All Rights Reserved

6 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) 1. Allows gas to be sold from remote suppliers Indonesia, Middle East, Australia, Algeria, etc. to industrialized countries, Japan, Korea, Spain, UK and USA 2. The largest producer of LNG is Qatar. 3.. Was Indonesia but gas reserves depleted 4. The largest market for LNG is Japan 5. International trade in 2007 was ~165mtpy (Equivalent to 217BCMa)

7 Qflex 2005 Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. All Rights Reserved

8 Gas Markets 1. Residential & Commercial a. Heating demand highly seasonal (low load factor) b. No fuel switching capabilities 2. Industrial a. Fuel for factories, chemical plants, steel mills, etc. b. Power generation for factories, chemical plants, steel mills, etc. c. Chemical feedstock ammonia, methanol, GTL d. High load factor e. Fuel switching capability

9 WHAT IS LNG 96% Methane 3% Ethane 1% 0.1% Propane Butane Pentane + LPG NGL LNG LPG Liquid Petroleum Gas NGL Natural Gas Liquids LNG Liquid Natural Gas

10

11 Example LNG Properties -162 o C [-235 o F] at atmospheric pressure Rich Lean nitrogen methane ethane propane butanes approx. kg/m CV (higher) MJ/m

12 2004 LNG Journal & Reproduced with Permission An LNG Export Terminal with Multiple Expansions - Bontang, Indonesia

13 The Basic LNG Chain Gas Production LNG Production Shipping LNG Reception Gas Utilization

14 Natural Gas Transportation Options Pipeline LNG Electricity Gas-to-liquids Uneconomic Distance to market, km

15 Nominal Gas Transportation Efficiency Ref. OG&J (May 15, 2000), p.64

16 Historical Development of LNG Trade Last 25 Years 1. Projects grow from under 1 mtpa to 4-6 mtpa 2. New supplies to Japan, first imports to Korea, 1987, and Taiwan, Late 1990s present Slower growth in Asian LNG demand economic upsets Growth in LNG demand in Europe, USA and Caribbean New supply projects in Atlantic Basin and Middle East Today s LNG trade

17 LNG Industry Growth Projected Historical Asia Europe United States Source: CERA, CEDIGAZ

18 2005 Source NPC Demand is Met from Diverse Sources of Supply

19 LNG Imports Are Needed, but Face Obstacles 2005 Source NPC

20 The Basic LNG Chain Gas Production LNG Production Shipping LNG Reception Gas Utilization

21 The Contract Chain 1. Exploration licenses, production-sharing 2. Gas sales to LNG Producer 3. LNG production joint venture agreement 4. Condensate/LPG production and sale 5. Government and local authority agreements 6. LNG sale and purchase agreement between LNG producer and LNG buyers

22 Gas Production Platform North Rankin A North-West Shelf Project, Australia 2005 LNG Journal & Reproduced with Permission

23 The Basic LNG Chain Gas Production LNG Production Shipping LNG Reception Gas Utilization

24 General Schematic Gas Liquefaction Terminal Pre-cooling and LPG Separation 2005 LNG Journal & Reproduced with Permission

25

26 Contaminants What s in gas (besides light hydrocarbons)? H 2 O CO 2 H 2 S S He N 2 Cl Hg As Waxes Asphaltenes etc. Sand Dinosaur Dust Lubricants Corrosion Inhibitors Mystery Stuff, etc.

27 Some Mercury Levels Worldwide microgm/m3 Mercury kg/a South America Far East Far East ,042 Far East Groningen Mid West P/L Based on 4 mtpy LNG production (600 MMscfd)

28 Air Products APCI Mixed Refrigerant LNG Process

29 2005 Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. All Rights Reserved

30 MCR Heat Exchanger Tube Bundle Fabrication 2005 Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. All Rights Reserved

31 Courtesy: Linde

32 MCR Heat Exchanger Tube Bundle Shipping 2005 Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. All Rights Reserved

33 Nominal Gas Transportation Efficiency Ref. OG&J (May 15, 2000), p.64

34 Thermodynamics Carnot Cycle Hmmmm!

35 The Liquefaction Heat Balance HEAT SINK 390 MW NG 40 C 60 bar PROCESS 230 MW LNG -162 C 1 bara POWER 160 MW LNG Production 3.7 mtpy (500 tph) Based on a 3.7 mtpy train

36 Centrifugal Compressors Horizontally Split Generally used in high volume/low pressure applications

37 Axial Turbine Blades

38 Overview of LNG Production Facilities Technologies 1. Established Technologies ConocoPhillips (Optimized Cascade) APCI (Propane Precooled) 2. New Process Technologies APCI (AP-X) Linde (MFC) Shell (DMR) IFP (Liquefin)

39 ConocoPhillips Optimized LNG Process Courtesy ConocoPhillips Petroleum Company

40 Egypt Idku 2 Trains 3.4 mtpy On stream in 2006 COP Optimised Cascade process Air cooled process Very long jetty Space for expansion

41 The Liquefaction Heat Balance HEAT SINK 390 MW NG 40 C 60 bar PROCESS 230 MW LNG -162 C 1 bara POWER 160 MW LNG Production 3.7 mtpy (500 tph) Based on a 3.7 mtpy train

42 Darwin LNG: First LNG March 06

43 Atlantic LNG Train 4: 5.2mtpy from 8 Frame 5 GTs Started up in March 2006

44 Overview of LNG Production Larger facilities Bigger Trains Bigger Turbines Facilities Trends Reduce Environmental Impact CO 2 Produced with gas Developed by turbines NO x Marine Environment

45 Typical Project Schedule Greenfield LNG Export Project Year Upstream Terminal Site LNG Plant Shipping study drilling and appraisal design construction selection acquisition, approvals prepn. study concept design FEED EPC - construction study shipping arrangements ship building Project Structure & Evaluation study negotiations -j.v. evaluation first LNG exports Markets analysis marketing, sales agreements Financing advice and analysis securing financing 2000 LNG Journal All Rights Reserved

46 Photo Courtesy of CB&I All Rights Reserved

47

48 190,000m 3 LNG Storage Tank

49 The Basic LNG Chain Gas Production LNG Production Shipping LNG Reception Gas Utilization

50 1959 The Methane Pioneer 2004 LNG Journal & Reproduced with Permission

51 2008 Hamworthy, Used With Permission, All Rights Reserved

52 LNG Carrier Fleet 1. As at 1 January 2009 the Carrier Fleet was a. 300 ships, average age 14 years b.390 ships in 2011 c. 52% Membrane, 45% Moss, 3% others 2. Small carriers 20-80,000m 3 3. Typical Carriers ,000m 3 4. New very large carriers for Qatar long distance trades ( ,000m 3 ). 5. The order book is 88 ships 6. Some Fleet owners now looking to replace older ships >35 years

53 One of the World s Smallest LNG Carriers The 19,100 m 3 Capacity Surya Aki

54 2008 Hamworthy, Used With Permission, All Rights Reserved

55

56

57 Finite Element Analysis

58 Partial Loading of LNG Cargoes Photo Courtesy of ABS

59 2008 Hamworthy, Used With Permission, All Rights Reserved

60 2008 Hamworthy Used With Permission All Rights Reserved

61 The Basic LNG Chain Gas Production LNG Production Shipping LNG Reception Gas Utilization

62

63 Costs in an LNG Project Gas Gathering Liquefaction (1 train) Ships $250 m Regasification TOTAL US$ billion US$ billion US$ 1.3 billion US$ billion US$ billion Could easily reach $7,000,000,000

64 Negishi Terminal, Japan : Single Containment Tanks (background) Inground Tanks (foreground) 2002 LNG Journal & Reproduced with Permission

65

66 USA LNG Terminal: Elba Island

67 The Basic LNG Chain Gas Production LNG Production Shipping LNG Reception Gas Utilization

68 Seasonal Demand Pattern Europe & North America

69

70 Gas Markets Power Generation Combined cycle most popular GT + waste heat boiler Eff.~55% Low CO 2 emissions 7 8 tonnes/mw compared to tonnes/mw for coal

71 Gas-Fired Electric Power Generation 2002 GE All Rights Reserved

72 Example Heating Values Japan Power Plant USA - Florida UK MJ/m3 Adapted from: Bramoulle, Morin and Capelle, LNG Quality and Market Flexibility Challenges and Solutions, LNG 14, Doha, Qatar 2004

73 LNG Roaring Ahead. Where Will it End?

74 2008 Hamworthy, Used With Permission, All Rights Reserved

75 Ship-to-Ship Transfer

76 Reduce Environmental Impact 1. Reduce CO2 Inject Produced CO2 Install most efficient drivers Cogeneration Larger Turbines Electric Motor Drivers 2. Reduce NOx Install Clean-burn technology 3. Effect on Marine Environment Use of air coolers

77 Some of Today s Challenges in LNG..Many Permits for US Imports Crews for LNG Carriers LNG quality variations Security Materials and Staffing

78 UK Gas Supply and Demand

79 Melkoya Island

80 StatoilHydro Snøhvit Plant Europe's first LNG export facility Capacity 4.2mtpy Linde MFC process First shipment 20 th October km tie-back to subsea templates CO 2 sequestration

81 LNG Roaring Ahead. Where Will it End? John Morgan John M. Campbell & Company Exclusive Provider of PetroSkills Facilities Training Headquarters Office 1215 Crossroads Blvd., Norman, OK USA (405) Office / (405) Fax / (303) Cell / John M. Campbell & Co. and Other Copyright Holders All Rights Reserved

82 THE END Thank You!

SPE DISTINGUISHED LECTURER SERIES is funded principally through a grant of the SPE FOUNDATION

SPE DISTINGUISHED LECTURER SERIES is funded principally through a grant of the SPE FOUNDATION SPE DISTINGUISHED LECTURER SERIES is funded principally through a grant of the SPE FOUNDATION The Society gratefully acknowledges those companies that support the program by allowing their professionals

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