2 Contents 1. Introduction 2. Ion range 3. implantation profiles 4. ion channeling 5. ion implantation-induced damage 6. annealing behavior of the damage 7. process consideration 8. comparison with diffusion
3 1. Introduction What is implantation? - A process by which dopant ions having high kinetic energies are introduced into a semiconductor to change its concentration and conductivity type. - kinetic energy : 50~500KeV Advantages - Selective doping of surface region - Superior to chemical diffusion :due to lower lateral-diffusion effect replace diffusion for selective doping in device processing
4 Schematic drawing of a typical ion implanter 1.ion source 2. mass spectrometer 3. high-voltage accelerator 4. x- and y-axis deflection system 5. target chamber
5 2. Ion range Ion range - When ions pass through a solid, they collide with nuclei and electrons and come to rest within the solid after some distance R.
6 Relationship between R and R P 2-dimensional distribution of the implant atoms (1) R : the range - Ion paths are not straight due to collision. - R can have multiple values. (2) R P : Projected range - projection of R in the implantation direction (3) R P : Projected straggle - statistical fluctuations in the ion concentration along the projected range. (4) R : Projected transverse or lateral straggle - fluctuations in the ion concentration in the transverse direction.
7 Lighter ion longer projected range and straggle, lateral straggle : due to weaker interaction H, Be, Zn, Se, Cd, Te ions into GaAs (1) lighter ions penetrate deeper than the heavy ions. (2) H, Be ions have much larger R p than Zn, Se, Cd, and Te ions. Straggle and lateral straggle on silicon
8 On amorphous silicon and thermal SiO 2 On GaAs
9 Theory of ion stopping (LSS theory) (LSS-Lindhard, Scharff, and Schiott) The energy loss per unit distance due to the nuclear and electronic collisions stops incident ions. detotal de de ( ) ( ) nuclear ( ) electronic dx dx dx Range of the ions R RE ( ) de 1 de de E ( ) N S( E) total dx 0 0 E : the energy of the incident ion N : the number density of target atoms S(E) : stopping power of the solid, S(E)=S n (E)+S e (E) E
10 detotal de de ( ) ( ) nuclear ( ) dx dx dx Nuclear collision term de 0 ( ) nuclear N Td NSn( E) dx E θ : Scattering angle T : energy transferred to the target next page dσ : differential cross section for ion scattering N : the number density of target atom Coulombic interaction term de ( ) electronic Ke E Se( E) dx Ke : relatively weak function of M 1 and M 2 electronic
11 Scattering process by a nucleus Energy transferred T to the target atom T 4MM E 2 1 sin ( ) ( M1 M2) 2 E 1, M 1 : incoming ion energy, mass of incident atom M 2 : mass of target atom
12 (1)At =180 o, maximum energy transfer (= head-on collision) (2)Heavy ions transfer much more of energy through nuclear collisions compared to light ions. (3)For B, S e (E) is the dominant mechanism over whole energy range. (4)For P, As, S n (E) dominates for E up to 130 & 700 kev, respectively.
13 Calculated values of de/dx for As, P, and B at various energies. The nuclear N and electronic e component are shown.
14 3. Implantation profiles concentration profile in amorphous solid Nx Q x R 2 R 2 R 0 1 P 2 ( ) exp[ ( ) ] N(x) : impurity concentration Q 0 : the dose concentration (ions/cm 2 ) X : the distance from the surface (cm) P P cf ) ignore the effects of the transverse straggle some error near the edges of mask Peak concentration at R p & falls off symmetrically on either side of R p.
15 4. Ion channeling In crystalline solid, 3D atomic arrangements within the crystal creates open channels along certain crystalline directions. channel openness observed along a specific direction (1) channel width along <110> direction > that along <100>. (2) Ion implanted along a channeling direction : less nuclear collision. (3) Slowed down by Coulombic losses. (4) Ions can penetrate deeper into crystalline solid than in amorphous material. Ion channeling
16 Diamond-cubic lattice <100>, <110> Si lattice viewed along the <100> axis
17 Tails on the concentration vs. depth profile - tilting of crystal from a channeling direction ions don t initially channel. but may subsequently align themselves along a channeling direction. may penetrate deeper than the range calculated from equation. produce tails on the concentration vs. depth profiles of implanted ions.
18 5. Ion implantation-induced damage (1)Damage If energy transfer T > E d (E d = displacement energy) The atom will be dislodged from its site. Cascade of multiple collision until T < E d, displacement of more atoms. Cause damage, which depends on - incident ion energy - ion dose - dose rate - mass of the ion - temperature of implantation
19 In energy transfer equation, (1)Light ions - transfer small amount of energy during each collision with the lattice atom - scattering of incident ions through large angles - displaced lattice atoms will possess a small amount of energy & may not produce additional atomic displacements. - energy loss mostly by electronic collision. - relatively little crystal damage. - ion range is comparatively large & damage will be spread out over a larger volume of the target.
20 (2) Heavy ions -Energy transfer by nuclear collision: dominant -Displaced atoms can produce displacement damage. -Ions are scattered through smaller angles. -Ion range is small. -Localize the damage within a small volume.
21 Amorphization due to ion implantation. Large potential to few atoms result in fusion of silicon. HRTEM - Amorphous cascade region on a (001) Si sample implanted with 100keV Si + ions to a dose of 1 X10 14 cm -2
22 Left HRTEM image showing the interface between the amorphous and crystalline Si. Arrow indicates microcrystal. Right HRTEM image amorphous and crystalline region (Si sample implanted with Si + ion, 100keV 2 X cm -2 )
23 6. Annealing behavior of the damage Ion implantation produces damage. The point defects in semiconductors are electrically active poor electrical characteristics. Only a fraction of the implanted ions are on substitutional sites and contribute to the concentration. Annealing - the point defect density can be reduced. - the implanted dopant atoms in interstitial sites could migrate to lattice sites and become electrically active.
24 Isochronal annealing behavior of silicon implanted with B ions (1) Low dose (8x10 12 /cm 2 ) monotonic increase of freecarrier concentration, P Hall, with T a. implanted ions are shifting to lattice sites on annealing. * Isochronal ( 동시성의 )
25 (2) Higher dose (3 different regions in T a ) (a)in region I, - free carrier concentration with T a. - extended defects (faulted dislocation loops) are not observed. - B atoms are migrating to lattice sites during annealing. (b) In region II, - free carrier concentration with T a. - dislocation substructure is observed after annealing. - B atoms migrate to the dislocation cores. ( B atoms are extremely small & will have strong elastic interactions with dislocation cores.) - Once the dopant atoms are removed from the substitutional sites, they will not contribute to the free-carrier concentration.
26 (c) Region III -Free carrier concentration with T a. -B atoms return to lattice sites. -Binding energy between B atoms & dislocations is overcome thermally. released B atoms migrate to the lattice sites & increase carrier concentration. Interactions between the implanted atoms & annealing induced defect structure complicate the activation of dopants. electric measurement at the same time as the structural observation needed.
27 Isochronal annealing behavior of silicon implanted with P ions (1) With increase in dose from 3x10 12 /cm 2 to 3x10 14 /cm 2 higher annealing temperature is required to eliminate damage. (2) Amorphous layers are produced at 1x10 15 & 5x10 15 /cm 2 dose, extend to surface. (3) On annealing, amorphous to crystalline transition occurs by solid phase epitaxy.
28 During regrowth, implanted atoms are incorporated into substitutional sites. After annealing, carrier concentration with higher dose become smaller than low-dose ones. ( probably, the residual damage after annealing in high-dose sample is more extensive.)
29 Annealing behavior of Si implanted with As and Sb ions at RT. similar to the behavior of P ions. except that lower doses are required for amorphization. (since As and Sb ions are considerably heavier than P ions.)
30 Annealing behavior of GaAs implanted with Be ions (1) After annealing at 600 & 700 o C, Gaussian distribution. (2) After annealing at T>800 o C, not a Gaussian due to diffusion of Be ions into surrounding regions. (3) Driving force= difference in the activities of Be atoms in the implanted and unimplanted regions.
31 Annealing behavior of GaAs implanted with S and Se ions (1) S + - deviates from Gaussian distribution. - substantial out-diffusion into the unimplanted regions. (2) Se + - almost Gaussian. - diffusion of Se in GaAs is considerably slower than that of S. - very useful implant for the fabrication of n-type regions in semiinsulating GaAs substrates. for field-effect transistors & integrated circuits.
32 Diffusion of implanted impurities (1) 1000 o C & 1100 o C annealing: can be explained by classical diffusion theory. (2) At lower T, classical theory cannot predict the observed profiles. (3) B profile after 900 o C annealing can be explained only if a diffusion constant which is 3 times the value estimated from chemical diffusion at 800 o C is used.
33 7. Process consideration Material for masks - The ion stopping power should be high. thin layers can effectively block incoming ions. - Easily removable after implantation. - Compatible with the photolithographic technique. SiO 2, Si 3 N 4, polysilicon, metal films, photoresist, polyimides. Thickness of R P + 3 R P provide a mask effectiveness of %. lighter ions require thicker masks for effective stoppage.
34 Minimum thickness to stop % incident ions
35 Implantation of ions in SiO 2 mask (1)Produces displacement damage damaged mask can be annealed between 800 & 1000 o C. (2) If SiO 2 mask on photoresist, adhesion between SiO 2 mask and resist could be impaired. lead to lift-off of the masking layer during subsequent processing. (3) At high implant energies, oxygen atoms could be dislodged from the mask & implanted into the underlying substrate.
36 Metal mask -suffer from a metal ion implant problem. severe deleterious effects (since metals have deep energy levels in many kinds of semiconductors.) Polymers -undergo cross-linking during ion implantation. difficult to remove the mask after ion implantation using standard procedure. -so, deposit the resist layer thicker than that required for 99.99% masking effectiveness. - After implantation, a thin, non-damaged, non-cross-linked layer of the resist will be present adjacent to the substrate. - can be easily removed.
37 Composite doping profile using multiple implants Unique profile Cannot be obtained by chemical diffusion.
38 Reason for annealing Annealing Setup 1. To provide thermal energy necessary to move implanted atoms from interstitial to substitutional site. 2. To remove as far as possible ion implantation-induced damage in the crystal. Annealing system 1. Furnace annealing 2. Laser annealing 3. Rapid thermal annealing
39 (1) Furnace annealing - Quite simple, but long time - Profile changes during annealing due to bulk diffusion Laser annealing (2) Laser annealing - Closer to LSS theory, but poor electrical property (3) Rapid thermal annealing - Overcome Furnace and laser annealing. - Through large area, uniform cooling and heating
40 Furnace and laser annealing Laser annealing is closer to LSS theory than furnace annealing
41 Rapid Thermal Annealing System
42 8. Comparison with diffusion Dopants can be introduced in a controlled manner at specific locations. By varying the voltage, the junction depth can be controlled. Thermal stability is better than chemical diffusion. A wide range of ion doses, to cm -2 and ion concentration can be controlled within 1 %. Various ions. Nonequilibrium process can dope over solubility limit.
43 Disadvantages (1)high-energy ions damage the lattice. Should be annealed at high T to heal them. (2) In III-V materials, group V atoms boil off due to high vapor pressure. (3) Implanted profile may change during annealing due to bulk diffusion. (4) Highly sophisticated implantation equipment. very expensive, need operator. However, high degree of automation & fine control of process are possible. Ion implantation is extensively used.
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