# Chapter 3 Silicon Device Fabrication Technology

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1 Chapter 3 Silicon Device Fabrication Technology Over transistors (or 100,000 for every person in the world) are manufactured every year. VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) Variations of this versatile technology are used for flat-panel displays, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), and even DNA chips for DNA screening... Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-1

2 Oxidation 3.1 Introduction to Device Fabrication Lithography & Etching Ion Implantation Annealing & Diffusion Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-2

3 3.2 Oxidation of Silicon Dry Oxidation : Wet Oxidation : Si + O 2 SiO 2 Si +2H 2 O SiO 2 + 2H 2 Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-3

4 3.2 Oxidation of Silicon Quartz tube Si Wafers Flow controller O 2 N 2 H 2 O or TCE(trichloroethylene) Resistance-heated furnace Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-4

5 EXAMPLE : Sequential Oxidation (a) How long does it take to grow 0.1µm of dry oxide at 1000 o C? (b) After step (a), how long will it take to grow an additional 0.2µm of oxide at 900 o C in a wet ambient? Solution: 3.2 Oxidation of Silicon (a) From the 1000 o C dry curve in Slide 3-3, it takes 2.5 hr to grow 0.1µm of oxide. (b) Use the 900 o C wet curve only. It would have taken 0.7hr to grow the 0.1 µm oxide and 2.4hr to grow 0.3 µm oxide from bare silicon. The answer is 2.4hr 0.7hr = 1.7hr. Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-5

6 3.3 Lithography Resist Coating Photoresist Positive resist Development Negative resist Optical Lens system Si Oxide (a) Deep Ultraviolet Light Photomask with opaque and clear patterns Si (c) Si Exposure (b) Si (d) Si Etching and Resist Strip Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-6

7 Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-7

8 3.3 Lithography Wafers are being loaded into a stepper in a clean room. Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-8

9 3.3 Lithography Advanced Lithography Technology Electron Projection Lithography : Exposes a complex pattern using mask and electron lens as is done in optical lithography. Extreme UV Lithography : Uses 13 nm wavelength (used to be called soft x-ray lithography). Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-9

10 Extreme UV Lithography Scott Hector, Motorola Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-10

11 3.4 Pattern Transfer Etching Isotropic etching photoresist Anisotropic etching photoresist SiO 2 SiO 2 (1) photoresist (1) photoresist SiO 2 SiO 2 (2) (2) SiO 2 SiO 2 (3) (3) Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-11

12 3.4 Pattern Transfer Etching Reactive-Ion Etching Systems Gas Baffle Gas Inlet Wafers RF Vacuum RF Cross-section View Top View Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-12

13 Scanning electron microscope view of a plasma-etched 0.16 µm pattern in polycrystalline silicon film. Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-13

14 3.4 Pattern Transfer Etching Dry Etching (also known as Plasma Etching, or Reactive-Ion Etching) is anisotropic. Silicon and its compounds can be etched by plasmas containing F. Aluminum can be etched by Cl. Some concerns : - Selectivity and End-Point Detection - Plasma Process-Induced Damage or Wafer Charging Damage and Antenna Effect Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-14

15 3.5 Doping Ion Implantation Ions Si Masking material for example resist or SiO 2 The dominant doping method Excellent control of dose (cm -2 ) Good control of implant depth with energy (KeV to MeV) Repairing crystal damage and dopant activation requires annealing, which can cause dopant diffusion and loss of depth control. Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-15

16 Analyzer magent Ion Implantation Schematic of an Ion Implanter Resolving aperture Acceleration tube y-scan plates x-scan plates Beam line & end station diffusion pumps Ion Beam Lens Wafer V Ion source Source diff pump Gas source Ion source power supply Rotating wafer holder electrically grounded Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-16

17 3.5.1 Ion implantation Phosphorous Density Profile after Implantation Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-17

18 N( x) = Ion Implantation Model of Implantation Doping Profile (Gaussian) N i 2π ( R) e ( x R) 2 / 2 R 2 N i : dose (cm -2 ) R : range or depth R : spread or sigma Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-18

19 3.5 Doping Other Doping Methods Gas-Phase Doping : Used to dope Si with P using POCl 3. Solid-Source Doping : Dopant diffuses from a doped solid film (SiGe or oxide) into Si. In-Situ Doping : Used to dope deposited films during film deposition. Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-19

20 3.6 Dopant Diffusion Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-20

21 3.6 Dopant Diffusion D increases with increasing temperature. Some applications need very deep junctions (high T, long t). Others need very shallow junctions (low T, short t). Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-21

22 3.6 Dopant Diffusion Shallow Junction and Rapid Thermal Annealing After ion implantation, thermal annealing is required. Furnace annealing causes too much diffusion of dopant for some applications. In rapid thermal annealing (RTA), the wafer is heated to high temperature in seconds by a bank of heat lamps. Also RTO (oxidation), RTCVD (chemical vapor deposition), RTP (processing). Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-22

23 Crystalline 3.7 Thin-Film Deposition Three Kinds of Solid Polycrystalline Amorphous Silicon wafer Thin film of Si or metal. Thin film of SiO 2 or Si 3 N 4. Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-23

24 3.7 Thin-Film Deposition Metal layers for device interconnect Inter-metal dielectric Poly-Si for transistor gate Barrier against interdiffusion Encapsulation Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-24

25 3.7.1 Sputtering Schematic Illustration of Sputtering Process Sputtering target Ion (Ar + ) Atoms sputtered out of the target Target material deposited on wafer Si Wafer Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-25

26 3.7.2 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Chemical reaction Molecules of deposited layer Gas 1 Gas 2 Si Wafer Thin film is formed from gas phase components. Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-26

27 3.7.2 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Two types of CVD equipment: LPCVD (Low Pressure CVD) : Good uniformity. Used for poly-si, oxide, nitride. PECVD (Plasma Enhanced CVD) : Low temperature process and high deposition rate. Used for PE-oxide, PE-nitride, etc. Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-27

28 Chemical Reactions of LPCVD Poly-Si : SiH 4 (g) Si (s) + 2H 2 (g) Nitride : 3SiH 2 Cl 2 (g)+4nh 3 (g) Si 3 N 4 (s)+6hcl(g)+6h 2 (g) Oxide : (1) LTO (Low Temperature Oxide) SiH 4 (g) + O 2 (g) SiO 2 (s) + 2H 2 (g) (2) HTO (High Temperature Oxide) SiH 2 Cl 2 (g)+2n 2 O (g) SiO 2 (s)+2hcl (g)+2n 2 (g) Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-28

29 3.7.2 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Pressure sensor Resistance-heated furnace Quartz tube Si Wafers Trap To exhaust Pump Gas control system Source gases LPCVD Systems Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-29

30 3.7.2 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Cold Wall Parallel Plate Gas Injection Ring Pump Wafers Hot Wall Parallel Plate Gas Inlet Heater Coil Wafers Pump Power leads PECVD Systems Plasma Electrodes Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-30

31 3.7.3 Epitaxy (Deposition of Single-Crystalline Film) SiO 2 SiO 2 Substrate Substrate Epi film SiO 2 Epi film SiO 2 Substrate Substrate (a) Basic Epitaxy (b) Selective Epitaxy Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-31

32 3.8 Interconnection The Back-end Process Al-Cu SiO 2 Si Dopant diffusion region (a) Encapsulation Dielectric Dielectric Dielectric Metal 3 Metal 2 Metal 1 via or plug Si CoSi 2 diffusion region (b) Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-32

33 3.8 Interconnection The Back-end Process Multi-Level Metallization Sun Microsystems Ultra Sparc Microprocessor Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-33

34 3.8 Interconnection The Back-end Process Copper Interconnect Al interconnect develops voids from electromigration. Cu has excellent electromigration reliability and 40% lower resistance than Al. Because dry etching of copper is difficult (copper compounds tend to be non-volatile), copper patterns may be defined by a damascene process. Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-34

35 3.8 Interconnection The Back-end Process Copper Damascene Process dielectric dielectric (a) (b) Cu Cu liner liner dielectric dielectric Barrier liner prevents Cu diffusion. Chemical-Mechanical Polishing (CMP) removes unwanted materials. (c) (d) Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-35

36 3.8 Interconnection The Back-end Process Planarization A flat surface is highly desirable for subsequent lithography and etching. CMP (Chemical-Mechanical Polishing) is used to planarize each layer of dielectric in the interconnect system. Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-36

37 3.9 Testing, Assembly, and Qualification Wafer acceptance test Die sorting Wafer sawing or cutting Packaging Flip-chip solder bump technology Multi-chip modules Burn-in Final test Qualification Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-37

38 3.10 Chapter Summary A Device Fabrication Example Start (0) P-Si SiO 2 (1) Oxidation (2) Lithography SiO 2 P-Si SiO 2 UV Mask Positive resist SiO 2 P-Si Annealing & Diffusion Al Sputtering (3) SiO 2 SiO 2 P-Si Oxide Etching Lithography Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-38

39 3.10 Chapter Summary A Device Fabrication Example Metal etching (8) (9) CVD nitride deposition (10) Lithography and bonding window etching (11) Back Side milling SiO2 SiO2 Si 3 N 4 N + P SiO 2 SiO 2 Si 3 N 4 N + P SiO 2 SiO 2 N + P Photoresist Si 3 N 4 SiO 2 SiO 2 N + P Al Al Al Al (12) (13) SiO 2 SiO 2 Si 3 N 4 N + P SiO 2 SiO 2 Au Si 3 N 4 Au N + P Al Plastic package metal leads Al Dicing, wire bonding, and packaging Au deposition on the back side wire Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu) Slide 3-39

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