Otitoloju Kekere and Peter A. Omoniyi. Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, AdekunleAjasin University, AkungbaAkoko, Ondo State, Nigeria

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1 Amerin-Eursin J. Agri. & Environ. Si., 16 (1): , 2016 ISSN IDOSI Pulitions, 2016 DOI: /idosi.ejes Soil Conditioner Enhned the Potentil of Orgni nd Inorgni Fertilizers on Growth nd Yield Improvement in Strek-Resistnt White Vriety of Ze mys L. Otitoloju Kekere nd Peter A. Omoniyi Deprtment of Plnt Siene nd Biotehnology, AdekunleAjsin University, AkungAkoko, Ondo Stte, Nigeri Astrt: Aprt from the generl use of mize, there is high demnd for strek-resistnt white vriety for poporn prodution euse of the unique explosive pity of its seed ot. The growing usiness of poporn prodution in Nigeri is fst ffeting its vilility, hene the need to further enhne its produtivity ove wht sole pplition of orgni nd inorgni fertilizers n hieve, whih is eoming indequte. A pot experiment ws rried out y growing strek-resistnt white mize vriety in soil mended with 100% inorgni NPK fertilizer (T ), 100% orgni NPK fertilizer (T ), 100% orgni soil onditioner (T ), 50% inorgni NPK fertilizer + 50% orgni soil onditioner (T ) or 50% orgni NPK fertilizer + 50% orgni soil 4 onditioner (T ), while those grown in soil without mendment served s the ontrol (T ). Agronomi 5 0 prmeters, exept stem girth were inresed t T -T over T whih ws signifint (p < 0.05), exept t T , 3 Similr results were lso otined on the reltive growth rte, while root/shoot rtio ws deresed signifintly t T4 nd T5. Soil mendment signifintly (p < 0.05)inresed totl hlorophyll, dry mss of leves, stem nd root, s well s totl iomss. Yield prmeters inluding numer of ers/plnt, numer of grins/er, numer of grins/plnt, grin yield nd 1000-grinsweight were inresed signifintly under soil mendment, exept t T. Although, yield t T nd T did not differ signifintly (p>0.05) from those reorded t T nd T, higher vlues were otined. Soil onditioner lone did not use ny signifint(p < 0.05) hnge on the growth nd yield of the plnt, ut its ddition to orgni nd inorgni fertilizers further inresed their potentil to improve produtivity over wht ws otinle under their sole pplition. Key words: Mize Fertilizers Soil Conditioner Yield Improvement INTRODUCTION developing ountries nd the world nd y 2050, the demnd for mize in developing ountries will Mize is n importnt erel rop onsumed y doule [1]. people with vrying food preferenes nd it is of In spite of ll efforts, mize yield in Nigeri, like in signifint eonomi importne in Afrin ountries. It is mny Su-Shrn Afri, is generlly low: preferred stple food for over 900 million poor tons/hetre ompred to tons/hetre in the United onsumers, million poor fmilies nd out one Sttes of Ameri s t 2011 [3]. Nigeri s in mny third of mlnourished hildren [1]. All prts of the rop tropil limtes is hrterized y high rinfll, the n e used s food nd non-food produts [2] nd it hs ttendnt effet of lehing nd low level of soil orgni een to wider rnge of uses thn ny other erel. mtter. Low soil fertility rnks mong the most serious In the Su-Shrn Afri, mize prodution grew onstrints of mize prodution, whih re minly due to minly through expnsion in the re plnted. However, redution in the fllow period euse of ever inresing shortge of the lnd mss hs eliminted re expnsion popultion pressures. s potentil soure of prodution growth, thus, there is Frmers hve long reognized the need to enhne n inresed ttention on improving produtivity. soil fertility y pplying fertilizers, whih mke ertin It is estimted tht y 2025, mize would hve essentil nutrients to e present in soil for plnt uptke. eome the rop with the gretest prodution in However, rop yield is not only determined y the Corresponding Author: Otitoloju Kekere, Deprtment of Plnt Siene nd Biotehnology, Adekunle Ajsin University, Akung Akoko, Ondo Stte, Nigeri. 133

2 Am-Eurs. J. Agri. & Environ. Si., 16 (1): , 2016 presene of nutrient in soil ut lso y its vilility, Fertilizers nd Soil Conditioner: Agro-hemils used thus nutrient ontent nd vilility in soil re importnt inlude orgni NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer (Ag-zyme), in rop yield. Reently, reserh hs reveled tht inorgni NPK 15:15:15fertilizer 15:15:15(Sidlo) nd enhnement of soil ondition n further enhne orgni soil onditioner (Ag-zyme), whih were purhsed nutrient vilility to plnts. Soil onditioners re the from the Input Supply Unit of Agriulturl Development mterils tht mke the soil more suitle for growth of Progrmme (ADP) offie, t Akure in Ondo Stte, Nigeri. plnts [4]. Orgni mterils with ron/nitrogen rtio elow 20% re fertilizers while those with Preprtion of Tretment Solution: The gro-hemils ron/nitrogen rtio greter thn 30% re soil were in liquid form nd they were prepred ording to onditioners [5]. Soil onditioners enhne soil properties the mnufturers instrutions for eh produt y inluding its struture, nutritionl ontent, wter-retention dissolving 500, 60 nd 250 ml of orgni fertilizer, pities nd stiliztion of soil ggregtes, infiltrtion inorgni fertilizer nd soil onditioner, respetively in 50 nd workility of soil [6-8]. Some of the orgni litres of wter. sustnes relesed during the minerliztion of soil onditioner my t s heltes tht help in the Experimentl Lotion nd Set-up: Two seeds of Ze sorption of essentil ions nd other miro-nutrients [7]. mys were sown in perforted plsti pots (30 m dimeter In n erlier report, the yield of mize t 75 kgn/h ws not nd 33 m depth) filled with 20kg of top soil. Seedlings signifintly different from the yield t 150 kg N/h [9], were thinned to one plnt per pot t 3 weeks fter plnting thus, enhning the relese of nutrients to plnts in soil nd rrnged inside the sreen house of Plnt Siene nd would improve the enefiil effet of orgni mnure or Biotehnology Deprtment, AdekunleAjsin University, io fertilizers s well s mironutrient [10]. Suh enefiil AkungAkoko, Ondo Stte, Nigeri (7 37 N ltitude, effets hs een reported to positively reflet on orgni 5 44 E Longitude nd 100 m ove the men se level). mtter ontent s well s the dry weight nd the plnt ion Soil mendment tretments ommened t two weeks fter (Fe, Mn, Zn nd Cu) ontent t the vegettive nd plnting following the reommendtion for optiml yield elongtion stges of mize growth [11]. They oserved in Nigeri [14]. Tretments inlude T0 (no soil tht the onsequenes of grin yield depended on the mendment), T1 (100% inorgni NPK fertilizer), T2 (100% reltive ontriution of rop nitrogen uptke nd orgni NPK fertilizer), T3 (100% orgni soil onditioner), moiliztion of lef nitrogen to grins. T4 (50% inorgni NPK + 50% orgni soil onditioner) Due to the ft tht mize food nd industril nd T5 (50% orgni NPK + 50% orgni soil onditioner). uses re enormous, its demnd n hrdly e The experiment ws rrnged in omplete rndomized mthed y prodution in Nigeri, hene the need to design (CRD) with 10 replites per tretment. Tretments improve its produtivity ove its present level [12]. were pplied in liquid form y irrigtion t the root zone Besides, strek-resistnt white is n improved Ze mys with 250 ml of the solution. Eh plnt reeived 250 ml of vriety ment to resist mize strek virus. Aprt from the the solution one/ 2 weeks till 12 weeks fter initition of generl use of mize, strek-resistnt white is used in pop tretments when it ws terminted. The experiment ws orn prodution euse of the explosive pity of the rried out for 15 weeks (Ferury to June 2015). Growth over when sujeted to het. The inresing demnd for nd yield prmeters were mesured t the end of the feeds y ever inresing popultion of poultry frmers experiment. hs lso put more pressure on its demnd. This experiment therefore imed t enhning the potentil Mesurement of Growth Prmeters: Plnt height nd of orgni nd inorgni fertilizers on growth nd lef re were mesured with steel meter rule nd lef yield improvement in strek-resistnt white vriety of re meter (model LI-COR 300), respetively. Stem girth Ze mys L. ws mesured using digitl Vernier liper (model mm), while the leves were ounted mnully. Lef re MATERIALS AND METHODS index (LAI) ws determined sed on the formul: Lef 2 re index (LAI) = LAI = LA/plnt m / pot surfe re Plnt Mterils: Seeds of Strek-resistnt White vriety 2 (m ). At mturity, soil ws dequtely soked with wter of Ze mys were purhsed from the Input Supply nd plnts were refully uprooted to prevent root Unit of Agriulturl Development Progrmme (ADP) dmge. All the min lterl roots were ounted nd their Offie, t Akure in Ondo Stte, Nigeri. length mesured with meter rule. 134

3 Am-Eurs. J. Agri. & Environ. Si., 16 (1): , 2016 Anlysis of Lef Totl Chlorophyll Content: Leves totl 1.84 mg/100 g Mg, 0.34 mg/100 g N, 0.23 mg/100 K, 0.20 hlorophyll ws extrted with 80% etone nd mg/100 g H nd 8.86 mg/100gcec. The results of this lulted with the formul: (20.2 D D663) study showed tht soil mendments enhned growth (50/1000) (100/5) ½, where D = sorne [15]. nd yield of strek-resistnt white vriety of Ze mys. Growth prmeters inluding plnt height, numer of Determintion of Biomss Aumultion: At 15 weeks leves, lef re index, stem girth, root length nd root fter plnting (12 weeks fter initition of tretments), the numer were inresed in plnts grown in mended soil ers were hrvested. The vegettive prts were over the ontrol (Tle 1). Generlly, the growth prtitioned into leves, stem nd roots. Fresh nd dry prmeters in plnts grown in soil treted with soil mss of plnt prts, s well s the totl iomss were onditioner (T3) hd higher vlues ut did not differ mesured. Root/shoot rtio ws lulted with the signifintly (p > 0.05)from the ontrol tretment. T1 nd formul: (root mss/shoot mss), while the reltive growth T2 did not differ from eh other in ll the prmeters, rte (RGR) ws lulted with: [ln mss2-ln mss1]/ time they hd higher vlues thn in the ontrol, ut were (dys), where mss1 = iomss t the initition of signifintly different for plnt height nd root numer tretments, mss2 = iomss t the end of the experiment, only. Plnts grown in soil mended with orgni nd while time numer of dys the tretments lsted. inorgni fertilizers in omintion with soil onditioner signifintly(p< 0.05) inresed ove the ontrol in the Mesurement of Yield Prmeters: The peeled ers per growth prmeters mesured, exept for the numer of plnt were ounted, while their dimeter nd length were leves/plnt nd stem girth. Interestingly, growth of mesured. Their weight ws mesured fter oven-dried. plnts in soil mended solely with fertilizers ws further Numer of kernels/er nd totl numer of grins/plnt inresed y ddition of soil onditioner. For exmple, were determined. Grin yield/plnt nd 1000 grinsweight plnt height ws inresed from nd t T1 were lso otined. nd T2 to nd t T4 nd T5, respetively. Similrly, lef re index inresed from nd t Sttistil Anlysis: Dt were sujeted to single ftor T1 nd T2 to nd t T4 nd T5, respetively. ANOVA nd mens were seprted with Tukey Honest Similr trend ws reorded in numer of leves/plnt, stem Signifint Differene (HSD) test using SPSS version 17.0 girth, root length nd root numer. However, the softwre (SPS In., Chigo, IL, USA) t 95% level of differene ws signifint (p < 0.05)for plnt height, lef signifine. re index nd root length, while other growth prmeters did not differ signifintly (p > 0.05). The dry mss of RESULTS plnt prts ws improved upon y soil mendments with the highest vlues t T4 nd T5 (Tle 2). Soil mendment The soil used for plnting ws top soil with lomy with only soil onditioner (T3) produed higher vlues, texture with physi-hemil prmeters desried ut did not signifintly(p > 0.05) differ from the ontrol. [16].The soil hd 5.60 ph, 6.19% ly, 4.29% silt, 89.7% Sole pplition of orgni nd inorgni fertilizers gve snd, 2.89% C, 0.14% N, 9.02 mg/100 g P, 6.24mg/100g C, signifintly(p < 0.05) etter dry mtter of plnt prts thn Tle 1: Growth prmeters of strek-resistnt vriety of Ze mys plnted in soil mended with orgni nd inorgni NPK fertilizers nd orgni soil onditioner Soil mendment tretment Growth prmeter T0 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 Plnt height (m) Numer of leves/plnt Lef re index Stem girth (m) Root length (m) le Root numer Eh vlue is men of 10 replites. For eh prmeter, mens with the sme letter(s) in supersript on the sme row re not signifintly different t P>0.05 (Tukey HSD test). T0 = no soil mendment, T1 = 100% inorgni NPK fertilizer, T2 = 100% orgni NPK fertilizer, T3 = 100% orgni soil onditioner, T4 = 50% inorgni NPK + 50% orgni soil onditioner, T5 = 50% orgni NPK + 50% orgni soil onditioner. 135

4 Am-Eurs. J. Agri. & Environ. Si., 16 (1): , 2016 Tle 2: Dry mss of plnt prts nd totl iomss of strek-resistnt vriety of Ze mys plnted in soil mended with orgni nd inorgni NPK fertilizers nd orgni soil onditioner Soil mendment tretment Dry mtter T0 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 Leves(g) Stem (g) Root (g ) Totl iomss (g) Eh vlue is men of 10 replites. For eh prmeter, mens with the sme letter(s) in supersript on the sme row re not signifintly different t P>0.05 (Tukey HSD test). T0 = no soil mendment, T1 = 100% inorgni NPK fertilizer, T2 = 100% orgni NPK fertilizer, T3 = 100% orgni soil onditioner, T4 = 50% inorgni NPK + 50% orgni soil onditioner, T5 = 50% orgni NPK + 50% orgni soil onditioner. Tle 3: Yield prmeters of strek-resistnt vriety of Ze mys plnted in soil mended with orgni nd inorgni NPK fertilizers nd orgni soil onditioner Soil mendment tretment Yield prmeter T0 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 Numer of ers/plnt Men er length (m) Men er dimeter (m) Men er dry weight (g) Numer of grins/er Numer of grins/plnt Grin dry weight/plnt (g) grin weight (g) Eh vlue is men of 10 replites. For eh prmeter, mens with the sme letter(s) in supersript on the sme row re not signifintly different t P>0.05 (Tukey HSD test). T0 = no soil mendment, T1 = 100% inorgni NPK fertilizer, T2 = 100% orgni NPK fertilizer, T3 = 100% orgni soil onditioner, T4 = 50% inorgni NPK + 50% orgni soil onditioner, T5 = 50% orgni NPK + 50% orgni soil onditioner. Fig. 1: Reltive growth rte (RGR) nd root/shoot rtio of strek-resistnt vriety of Ze mys plnted in soil mended with orgni nd inorgni NPK fertilizers nd orgni soil onditioner. Eh r represents men + stndrd error of 5 replites. For eh prmeter, rs with the sme letter(s) re not signifintly different t P>0.05 (Tukey HSD test). T0 = no soil mendment, T1 = 100% inorgni NPK fertilizer, T2 = 100% orgni NPK fertilizer, T3 = 100% orgni soil onditioner, T4 = 50% inorgni NPK + 50% orgni soil onditioner, T5 = 50% orgni NPK + 50% orgni soil onditioner. 136

5 Am-Eurs. J. Agri. & Environ. Si., 16 (1): , 2016 Fig. 2: Leves totl hlorophyll of strek-resistnt vriety of Ze mys plnted in soil mended with orgni nd inorgni NPK fertilizers nd orgni soil onditioner. Eh r represents men + stndrd error of 3 replites. For eh prmeter, rs with the sme letter(s) re not signifintly different t P>0.05 (Tukey HSD test). T0 = no soil mendment, T1 = 100% inorgni NPK fertilizer, T2 = 100% orgni NPK fertilizer, T3 = 100% orgni soil onditioner, T4 = 50% inorgni NPK + 50% orgni soil onditioner, T5 = 50% orgni NPK + 50% orgni soil onditioner. tht of the ontrol tretment. The vlues were however differene(p < 0.05) for er dry weight, numer of remrkly improved y their pplition in omintion grins/plnt, grin dry weight nd grin dry weight/plnt with soil onditioner (T4 nd T5). For instne, there ws only. Menwhile, when T4 nd T5 were ompred to T0, n improvement over T1 nd T2 for lef (28.71 nd remrkle differenes(p < 0.05) were otined for the 21.58%), stem (30.16 nd34.06%) nd root (17.71 nd yield omponents with the exeption of numer of 14.79%) t T4 nd T5, respetively. Similrly, there ws no ers/plnt nd numer of grins/er. signifint differene in totl iomss etween T0 nd T3 while T2 nd T3 gve signifintly (p < 0.05) higher vlues DISCUSSION thn T0. However, totl iomss ws lso further signifintly inresed from nd t T1 nd The oserved signifint performne in growth nd T2 to nd t T4 nd T5, respetively. The yield prmeters with the pplition of fertilizers ould e reltive growth rte likewise inresed signifintly (p < ttriuted to the essentil nutrient elements ontined in 0.05) t T4 nd T5 ompred to T1 nd T2 (Fig. 1). them tht re ssoited with inresing photosyntheti Menwhile, RGR t T0 nd T3 did not differ from eh effiieny. The greter numer of leves, plnt height, other ut were signifintly lower t T1 nd T2. Root/ stem dimeter nd lef re index (LAI) in mended soil shoot rtio ws not signifintly (p > 0.05) ffeted y T1, orroortes previous findings on mize [17], eggplnt T2 nd T3 ut, deresed signifintly(p < 0.05) in plnts [18-19], rrot [20], millet [21] nd groundnut [16]. grown under mixture of soil onditioner nd fertilizer Signifint inreses in LAI nd dry mtter umultion pplition (Fig. 1). Leves totl hlorophyll ws in mize plnted with orgni nd inorgni fertilizers signifintly(p < 0.05) higher in plnts exposed to soil ould e due to the ility of the fertilizers to supply the mendments ompred to the un-mended soil (Fig. 2). nutrient elements neessry to promote more vigorous Grin yield per plnt ws lso enhned y soil growth, improve meristemti nd physiologil tivities mendments (Tle 3). Generlly, yield prmeters of in the plnts [17]. They oserved tht LAI nd grin yield plnts treted with soil onditioner did not differ positively orrelted whih onfirmed the sis for whih signifintly (p > 0.05)from those grown without the highest vlues of LAI were lso rehed t the pek mendment. In ddition, yield prmeters reorded t T1 point lso for grin yield (T4 nd T5). Lef is the site of nd T2 differed from tht of T0, ut for numer of photosyntheti tivities, thus, inreses in numer nd ers/plnt, er dimeter nd numer of grins /er. Yields surfe re ville for photosynthesis must hve een t T1 nd T2 were similr ut were improved y T4 nd responsile for improved yield. In ddition, inrese in T5, whih in turn did not differ from eh other. The yield leves totl hlorophyll might e s result of dditionl prmeters t T4 nd T5 were higher in vlues thn t T1 supply of nutrients like mgnesium nd iron, whih re nd T2. However, one-wy ANOVA showed signifint importnt in hlorophyll formtion. 137

6 Am-Eurs. J. Agri. & Environ. Si., 16 (1): , 2016 Generlly, ll the prmeters orrelted with eh other, suggesting tht, in the se of limited field resoures, the performne evlution of one or more of the prmeters my provide resonle index for the predition of the prole performne of the other losely ssoited prmeters. Lef stem nd root mss s well s totl iomss nd yield omponents lso inresed with pplition of soil mendments, whih resulted in n overll inrese in grin yield per hetre. Similrly, high dry mtter prtitioning towrds inresed grin yield nd higher hrvest index in mize [22]. Sole pplition of soil onditioner though produed etter growth nd yield thn the ontrol, the performne ws not stisftory onsidering the ft tht it hd no signifint dditionl dvntge on oosting mize growth nd grin yield. The inrese in growth nd yield under soil onditioner ws proly euse it ontined some mount of nutrients whih re essentils for growth. Also, the soil onditioner must hve improved the soil properties, therey resulting in more nutrient uptke for the synthesis of inresed photo ssimiltes tht enhned mize yielding ility. This is in line with the results tht soil onditioners (hydrogel nd ovine mnure) indued higher onentrtions of N, P nd K uptke y green pepper (Cpsium nnuum) [7]. Improved yield of mize hs erlier een reported when soil ws mended with soil onditioner nd rystllizer [8]. In this study, the most stisftory yield ws otined when orgni nd inorgni fertilizers were used in omintion with soil onditioner. Sole pplition of fertilizers produed etter yield thn those grown without fertilizer. Soil onditioners hve een reported to enhne soil properties, inluding its struture, nutritionl ontent, wter retention pities nd n lso hve positive effet on stiliztion of soil ggregtes, infiltrtion nd workility of soil [6-8]. Some of the orgni sustnes relesed during the minerliztion of soil onditioner my t s heltes tht help in the sorption of essentil ions nd other mironutrients [7]. As result of improved soil onditions. The orgni mterils present in soil onditioner ould hve formed omplex, preventing the preipittion of phosphte, redued the P-sorption pity of the soil, enhned P vilility, improved P-reovery, dded ron into the soil, provided sustrte for miroil growth nd susequent miroil tivity or resulted in etter utiliztion y plnts [7]. The turnover resulting from the deomposition of orgni mterils must hve improved C nd N minerliztion rtes nd enzyme tivities, whih positively ffeted nutrient yling nd vilility to the plnts [8]. CONCLUSION This study hs reveled tht pplition of inorgni nd orgni fertilizers improved the growth nd yield of strek-resistnt vriety of Ze mys. Applition of only soil onditioner did not hve signifint dditionl dvntge on oosting mize growth nd grin yield tht n e ommensurte with the ost of purhse nd my not provide return on the investment. However, this study showed tht grin yield of the test rop inresed when soil onditioner ws mixed with inorgni nd orgni fertilizers over wht ws otinle under their sole pplitions. Therefore, the use of soil onditioner with fertilizer is demonstrtion of improved prties over the onventioneer method of sole pplition of fertilizer, tehnique from whih frmers nd frm mngers n enefit from. REFERENCES 1. CIMMYT, IITA, Mize-Glol lline for improving food seurity nd the livelihood of the resoure-poor in the developing world. Drft proposl sumitted y CIMMTY nd IITA to the CGIAR Comortium Bord. El Bltn, Mexio, pp: Interntionl Institute for Tropil Agriulture (IITA), Reserh for Development: Cerels nd legume system, pp: Food nd Agriulturl Orgniztion Sttistil Dtse of the United Sttes (FAOSTAT), nor. 4. British Columi, Ministry of Agriulture, food nd Fisheries (BCMAFF), Fertilizer nd Soil Conditioners. A Pulition of Strengthening Frming Mgzine, Right to Frm Order no, 870: Lwless, J.R., H.D. Sundermn, F.L. Lmm nd L.D. Roerson, Report of reserh result. Supplement 1ompendium of reserh reports on use of non-trditionl mterils for rop prodution. NCRI 103 ommittee. Iow stte press, Ames, Iow. 6. Ben-Hur, M. nd R. Keren, Using syntheti polymers s soil onditioners to ontrol runoff nd soil loss in rid nd semi-rid regions review. Austrlin Journl of Soil Reserh, 44(3): Loo, D., D. Griels nd G. Depol, Effet of soil onditioners on nutrient uptke y green pepper rop. Agro environ. Interntionl entre for hemorology, Ghent University, Belgium, pp:

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